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> Bod, The verb "to be"
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Siarls 
Posted: 18-Feb-2006, 09:45 AM
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In Welsh, the word "bod" is probably one of the most important words you will come across, but because it's so important - it's important to get its use and conjugation right.
Once understood, Welsh becomes a lot simpler as it is the foundation of the entire Welsh Language Tool!

BOD is used to describe action as well as to connect adjectives to their nouns.
Let's look at how this can be compared to English:

he is happy (adjective to noun)
he is running (action)

OK so far?

Let's look at how to conjugate it. For now, we will stick with the 3 main time frames in the Standard form: past, present and future. There are more tenses that become more intricate and more forms that represent region and formality, let's get the basics first...

PRESENT
'Rwyf i'n (I am)
'Rwyt ti'n (you are)
Mae e'n (he is)
Mae hi'n (she is)
'Rydym ni'n (we are)
'Rydych chi'n (you are)
Maent nhw'n (they are)

PAST
'Roeddwn i'n (I was)
'Roeddet ti'n (you were)
'Roedd e'n (he was)
'Roedd hi'n (she was)
'Roeddem ni'n (we were)
'Roeddech chi'n (you are)
'Roeddent nhw'n (they were)

FUTURE
Byddaf i'n (I will)
Byddet ti'n (you will)
Bydd e'n (he will)
Bydd hi'n (she will)
Byddem ni'n (we will)
Byddwch chi'n (you will)
Byddent nhw'n (they will)

If you are going to use an adjective, IT MUST MUTATE SOFTLY.
If you are describing an action, there is NO mutation.

Therefore:
Mae e'n ddiddorol (diddorol has mutated)
Mae e'n mynd (mynd has NOT mutated)

The word YN must always connect BOD with the adjective/verb. To flow easier, that is why it has become 'N after the vowels of the pronouns.

If you do say "Byddaf i yn" you are saying "I will be in", so this is the ONLY exception to the 'N rule.

Next, we shall discuss questions and negatives.


--------------------
Gwlad, gwlad, pleidiol wyf im gwlad
Tra mr yn fur
I'r bur hoff bau
O bydded ir heniaith barhau
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austaff 
Posted: 20-Feb-2006, 07:08 PM
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Diolch siarls
Next lesson please


--------------------
A fo ben bid bont
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Siarls 
Posted: 21-Feb-2006, 08:45 AM
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In Standard Welsh, to which we will restrict ourselves for the time being, there are two determining words we place at the beginning of the sentence to signify question (A) and negation (NID).

These replace the 'R of the present and past tenses, and cause the B of the future to mutate softly...

PAST
A oeddwn i'n?
A oeddet ti'n?
A oedd e'n/hi'n?
A oeddem ni'n?
A oeddech chi'n?
A oeddent nhw'n?

PRESENT
A wyf i'n?
A wyt ti'n?
A yw e'n/hi'n?
A ydym ni'n?
A ydych chi'n?
A ydynt nhw'n?

FUTURE
A fyddaf i'n?
A fyddi ti'n?
A fydd e'n/hi'n?
A fyddwn ni'n?
A fyddwch chi'n?
A fyddant nhw'n?

To negate, simply use NID in place of A in the structures above.


PLEASE NOTE
I have actually made a mistake in the first post (probably rushing as I am now - got a class in 10 minutes!!!!)

Byddwn ni'n
Byddwch chi'n
Byddant nhw'n

are the correct forms. The forms I have put are in fact the conditional tense. Apologies.
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Siarls 
Posted: 21-Feb-2006, 08:47 AM
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In Standard Welsh, there is no need for the negate ddim in negative sentences, e.g.

Spoken Welsh:
'Dyw e ddim yn siarad Cymraeg

Standard Welsh:
Nid yw e'n siarad Cymraeg
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austaff 
Posted: 23-Feb-2006, 09:45 PM
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why is there differences between spoken welsh and standard welsh and again literary welsh

can you explain what is standard welsh etc as I am confused as to why one would speak welsh a different way to the way you write it
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Siarls 
Posted: 24-Feb-2006, 08:17 AM
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It is a very confusing topic.
Until recently, Welsh was not recognised as an official language by English authorities, plus their intent to destroy. Therefore, there was no education available in the Welsh language. In consequence, dialects began to form.

Standard Welsh is the single form of Welsh that is used to describe the Official Form of the language. It was put together by academics and priests in order to write the Welsh Bible. That is why the Welsh Bible is so important to Welsh culture.

Literary Welsh describes the various forms of formal written Welsh that are old-fashioned, archaic, highly academic and even painful to the ears of natives. However, they are still popular as a form of literature in novels and poetry, but in no means do they describe the spoken forms. Literary Welsh is also used to describe techniques and styles of written Welsh, like cynghanedd.
Although it is popular to now write spoken Welsh. This is what we'd describes as hygyrch, or "accessible".

I think it'd be easier for you to learn Standard first because you have an idea of how Welsh is formed, so when you begin to adapt to a dialect, you know what is correct without slipping into (ignorant) bad habits. The whole construction of the Standard form comes from the amalgamation of dialects, so you will see correlations and the dialects should fall into place when you see the connections. E.g.
Southern Welsh does not like dd much, all of a sudden you recognise words like:

sy (sydd)
o'n (oeddwn)
eiste (eistedd)
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austaff 
Posted: 24-Feb-2006, 08:20 PM
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Diolch Siarls

That gets rid of the confusion and allows me toi understand things a little easier

cheers
Aaustaf thumbs_up.gif
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Siarls 
Posted: 25-Feb-2006, 08:53 AM
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The next thing to learn about "bod" is the subordinate clause. Basically, that is when we use the word "that" in English, e.g.
I know that I am Welsh

In English it can be hard to recognise because the "that" is not necessarily needed:
I know I am Welsh

However, in Welsh it is absolutely obligatory and to be honest, it's not that difficult. You use "bod"...

Past Continuous
fy mod i'n
dy fod di'n
ei fod e'n
ei bod hi'n
bod Siarls yn
ein bod ni'n
eich bod chi'n
eu bod nhw'n

e.g. I knew that he was Welsh
'Roeddwn i'n gwybod ei fod e'n Gymraeg


Present
This may be considered confusing... it is the same as the Past Tense. However, you will be able to tell by context, e.g.

I know that he is Welsh
'Rwyf i'n gwybod ei fod e'n Gymraeg


Past Complete
fy mod i wedi
dy fod di wedi
ei fod e wedi
ei bod hi wedi
bod Siarls wedi
ein bod ni wedi
eich bod chi wedi
eu bod nhw wedi
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Siarls 
Posted: 03-Mar-2006, 07:57 AM
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Pwyslais or Emphasis is an important aspect of the Welsh Language and is used regularly. It also influences the English dialect spoken in Wales.

This is when we wish to emphasise part of a sentence that would normally be done so by tone in English. For example: I spoke to the girl next door, (not the man over there).

We do this in Welsh by bringing the focus of the emphasis to the front of the sentence:
'r ferched yr wyf wedi siarad (nid y dyn draw yno)

Using bod with pwyslais is not particularly difficult, but is actually similar to English grammatical regularity. For now, let's focus on the emphasis of the subject of the verb (I, you, he, she etc):

Present
Myfi yw
Ti yw
Efe yw
Hyhi yw
Siarls yw
Nyni yw
Chi yw
Hwynt-hwy yw

For the past (imperfect), just replace yw with a oedd

And for the future, replace yw with a fydd

In Speech, the a is not said, but the mutation remains.
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austaff 
Posted: 04-Mar-2006, 09:18 PM
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QUOTE (Siarls @ 03-Mar-2006, 07:57 AM)

Present
Myfi yw
Ti yw
Efe yw
Hyhi yw
Siarls yw
Nyni yw
Chi yw
Hwynt-hwy yw


Siarls i have not come across these words so far in my lessons and am a little confused as to their meaning can you explain each one for me so that I can better understand the pattern
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Siarls 
Posted: 05-Mar-2006, 06:44 AM
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They are a bit old-fashioned, but they just very emphatic.

Myfi would be like saying "me" or "I" with a very emphatic tone, implying, "only me, noone else".

In Spoken Welsh, it would just be:
Fi
Ti
Fe
Hi
Ni
Chi
Nhw

So these ones are probably better for to use then, as you already know them. But be aware that the very emphatic Standard forms exist!
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austaff 
Posted: 06-Mar-2006, 06:22 PM
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Aaaaaaaaaah got it Siarls now it makes sense Diolch thumbs_up.gif
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Siarls 
Posted: 08-Mar-2006, 06:29 AM
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When you want to emphasise something in a subordinate clause, replace the bod that is acting as the English word that, with the word mai or taw, then using the normal emphatic structure, e.g.

Present
mai fi yw
mai ti yw
mai ef yw
mai hi yw
mai Siarls yw
mai ni yw
mai chi yw
mai nhw yw

Past
mai fi a oedd
mai ti a oedd
mai ef a oedd
mai hi a oedd
mai Siarls a oedd
mai ni a oedd
mai chi a oedd
mai nhw a oedd

Future
mai fi a fydd
mai ti a fydd
mai ef a fydd
mai hi a fydd
mai Siarls a fydd
mai ni a fydd
mai chi a fydd
mai nhw a fydd

As you can see, it is very simpler, perhaps simpler than the regular form. However, it should only be used to emphasise and should not replace the normal grammatical structure. What may be difficult is knowing when to emphasise but hopefully you should now be able to recognise emphasis. Remember that the a that links the oedd and fydd may not always be included.
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Antwn 
Posted: 08-Mar-2006, 07:47 PM
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Thanks Siarls!!! I just tried to use one of these. These tips are a big help - appreciate it.


--------------------
Yr hen Gymraeg i mi,
Hon ydyw iaith teimladau,
Ac adlais i guriadau
Fy nghalon ydyw hi
--- Mynyddog
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