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> Scottish Gaelic, Lesson 5
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WizardofOwls 
Posted: 15-Apr-2005, 11:01 PM
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Here is Lesson 5. As always, the sound foiles which accompany this lesson can be found at:

http://www.taic.btinternet.co.uk/taic.ht


Lesson 5

Introduction to the Simple Prepositions

To help recognise trends the Simple Prepositions are best placed into distinct groups :

Group 1

aig - at
aig doras - at a door
aig an doras - at the door

air - on
air leabaidh - on a bed
air an leabaidh - on the bed

gun - without
gun ch - without a dog *
gun an c - without the dog

mar - as, like
mar dhuine - like a man *
mar an duine - like the man

* mar and gun lenite indefinite nouns except those beginning with l, n, r, sg, sm, sp or st.
(You probably recognise these exceptions from Lesson 4).

Group 2

These prepositions all lenite an indefinite noun except those beginning with l, n, r, sg, sm, sp or st.
All combine with the singular definite article an.
The definite article an loses its initial a; e.g. bho + an >> bhon

bho / o - from
bho leabhar / o leabhar - from a book
bhon leabhar / on leabhar - from the book

de - of, off
de theine - of fire
den teine * - of the fire
dha / do - to
dha thaigh / do thaigh - to a house
dhan taigh / don taigh - to the house

fo - under, below
fo thruinnsear - under a plate
fon truinnsear - under the plate

mu - about
mu dhealbh - about a picture
mun dealbh - about the picture

ro - before
ro thubaist - before a accident
ron tubaist - before the accident

tro - through
tro dhoras - through a door
tron doras - through the door

* den often appears as dhen in both the spoken and written language

Group 3

These prepositions have separate forms for definite and indefinite nouns. The prepositions assume a final s before definite articles.

(s - with definite noun) - from, out of
taigh - out of a house
s an taigh - out of the house

ann an (anns - with definite noun) - in
ann an leabaidh - in a bed
ann am bta - in a boat *
anns an leabaidh - in the bed

gu (also: gus - with definite noun) - to, until
gu taigh - to a house
gun taigh (also: gus an taigh) - to the house

le (leis - with definite noun) - with, by
le leabhar - with a book
leis an leabhar - with the book

ri (ris - with definite noun) - to, at, against ri sgthan - against a mirror
ris an sgthan - against the mirror

* Use ann am for nouns beginning with b, f, m or p

Simple prepositions are often the second element in a complex preposition. The first element never changes in this group:
faisg air leabhar - near a book
faisg air an leabhar - near the book

An Idiomatic Use of ann
One important idiomatic use of ann is where it denotes presence or existence or when something is happening :
Tha Calum ann - Calum is present / Calum is here
Bha mi ann? - I was present / I was there
Tha cilidh ann a-nochd - There is a ceilidh on tonight

NEW WORDS

Conjunctions
ach - however

Nouns
c (m) - dog
dealbh (m) - picture
rm (m) - room, free space
taigh-sta (m) - hotel
truinnsear (m) - plate
sgeilp (f) - shelf
sgeul (f) - story
toit (f) - smoke
tubaist (f) - accident

Placenames
Dn ideann - Edinburgh
Glaschu - Glasgow
Inbhir Nis - Inverness
Sternabhagh - Stornoway

Prepositions
(s - with a definite noun ) - from (place), out of
aig - at
air - on ann an (anns - with a definite noun ) - in
bho /o - from dha / do - to
de - of, off fo - under, below gu (gus - with a definite noun ) - to, until
gun - without
le (leis - with a definite noun ) - with, by
mar - as, like
mu - about
ri (ris - with a definite noun ) - at, against
ro - before tro - through
cmhla ri(s) - together with cuide ri(s) - together with
faisg air - near
seachad air - past
thairis air - across

EXERCISE 1 Translate into English
1.An robh thu anns an eaglais?
2.Tha an gille anns an rm
3.Cha robh duine aig an doras
4.A bheil thu aig an sgoil? Tha
5.Bha i tinn agus cha robh i aig an sgoil
6.Tha mi gl bhlth faisg air an teine
7.Bha iad ris an doras
8.Bha sinn ri sgeilp
9.Nach robh sibh air an leabaidh?
10.Tha e Inbhir Nis
11.Bha iad bhon taigh tron oidhche
12.Nach eil an c fon leabaidh?
13.Bha i cmhla ris an duine
14.Tha a' chaileag air an lr cuide ri c
15.Bha leabhar ann

EXERCISE 2 Translate into Gidhlig
1.The man is busy on the road
2.There is a girl in a boat on the river
3.He is from Stornoway
4.She was in school however he was not
5.Are they not from Edinburgh?, No
6.She is from Glasgow and he is from Edinburgh
7.They were in the hotel, however I was at home
8.We weren't very hot at the fire
9.There is a letter from that girl (nighean)
10.He was in the picture of that story
11.The room was dirty with the smoke
12.The boy was in the house
13.There isn't an empty room in this house


--------------------
Sln agus beannachd,
Allen R. Alderman

'S i Alba tr mo chridhe. 'S i Gidhlig cnan m' anama.
Scotland is the land of my heart. Gaelic is the language of my soul.
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DesertRose 
Posted: 16-Apr-2005, 09:13 PM
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Tapadh leat, Allen. More grammar.......ugh! wink.gif biggrin.gif


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WizardofOwls 
Posted: 16-Apr-2005, 11:21 PM
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'Se do bheatha, a charaid! smile.gif
You're welcome, dearie! smile.gif

A bheil thu deisiel airson Leasain a' Sia?
Are you ready for Lesson 6?
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DesertRose 
Posted: 16-Apr-2005, 11:59 PM
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Uh...........no! Still struggling through Lesson 5. But go ahead and post it anyway for the others! wink.gif smile.gif
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