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> Scottish Gaelic, Lesson 3
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Posted: 11-Feb-2005, 09:42 PM
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Gaelic - Lesson 3, From www.taic.btinternet.co.uk/taic.htm

The Nominative Case of Nouns

This is the basic form used when the noun is either the subject or the direct object in a sentence.
E.g. in English:
boy as subject - The boy is cold
boy as direct object - I saw the boy

There is no word for a or an in Gidhlig. All indefinite nouns are simply entered without an article. Nouns are considered to be either masculine or feminine, you will see these in the NEW WORDS and Vocabulary sections as either (m) or (f) respectively:
doras (m) - door
eaglais (f) - church
balach (m) - boy
leabaidh (f) - bed
taigh (m) - house
caileag (f) - girl

Masculine Nouns
The masculine nominative nouns have the definite article as an t- before a vowel; am before words beginning with b, f, m, or p; and an in all other instances:
An t-ran (*) - The song
An t-each (*) - The horse
Am balach - The boy
Am peann - The pen
An duine - The man
An semar - The room

(*) The omission of the initial t- is not uncommon in colloquial speech

Feminine Nouns
Feminine nominative nouns beginning with b, f, m, p, c or g are all lenited with the definite article a' (or an with lenited f). Words beginning with sl, sn, sr or s+vowel have the definite article as an t-. In all other instances the definite article is an:
A' chaileag - The girl
An fhearg - The anger
An t-snthad - The needle
An t-sth - The peace
An abhainn - The river
An litir - The letter

The good news is that all nominative nouns, whether masculine or feminine, beginning with d, t, l, n, r, sg, sm, sp or st all have their definite articles as an:
An leabhar (m) - The book
An lmh (f) - The hand
An sgthan (m) - The mirror
An sgian (f) - The knife
An nead (m) - The nest
An nighean (f) - The daughter

The nominative plural definite article in all cases is na:
Na taighean (m) - The houses
Na caileagan (f) - The girls

Don't worry too much just now about the plurals. Remember you can find the other forms of the nouns in the Vocabulary section at http://www.taic.btinternet.co.uk/taic.htm.


falamh - empty
geur - sharp
glan - clean
osal - low
salach - dirty
teth - hot

balach (m) - boy
bta (m) - boat
doras (m) - door
duine (m) - person, husband
each (m) - horse
gille (m) - lad
lr (m) - floor
leabhar (m) - book
loch (m) - loch
nead (m) - nest
ran (m) - song
peann (m) - pen
rathad (m) - road
semar (m) - room
sgthan (m) - mirror
taigh (m) - house
teine (m) - fire

abhainn (f) - river
caileag (f) - girl
eaglais (f)- church
fearg (f) - anger
lmh (f) - hand
leabaidh (f) - bed
litir (f) - letter
nighean (f) - girl, daughter
oidhche (f) - night
sgian (f) - knife
sgoil (f) - school
sth (f) - peace
snthad (f) - needle

EXERCISE 1 Translate into English
1.Chan eil an sgoil gl ghlan
2.Tha an eaglais fuar
3.An robh an sgian geur? Cha robh
4.A bheil an litir mr? Chan eil
5.Tha am peann tioram
6.Nach eil an loch osal? Tha
7.Tha an snthad gl gheur
8.Bha an nead falamh
9.A bheil an semar blth? Chan eil
10.Cha robh an t-ran snog

EXERCISE 2 Translate into Gidhlig
1.Was the book small? No
2.The lad is terribly tired
3.Is the door dry?
4.The floor wasn't wet
5.The mirror isn't clean
6.The peace was nice (good)
7.Wasn't the house empty? Yes
8.The fire was hot
9.The hand was wet
10.Isn't the night cold? Yes
11.The bed wasn't clean
12.The girl wasn't too happy
13.The anger was great

Sln agus beannachd,
Allen R. Alderman

'S i Alba tr mo chridhe. 'S i Gidhlig cnan m' anama.
Scotland is the land of my heart. Gaelic is the language of my soul.
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