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DesertRose 
Posted: 18-Dec-2003, 01:39 PM
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Some Gaelic Grammar

LESSON ONE -- A' CHEUD LEASAN

Aspiration
"To Be"
i) Present Tense, Affirmative
ii) Present Tense, Negative
iii) Present Tense, Question
iv) Present Tense, Negative Question
Verbal Noun
Vocabulary


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This is the first in a series of Scots Gaelic lessons. These lessons are cobbled together using examples from different grammars and textbooks, so if anything seems vaguely familiar, that's probably why. Corrections to this material are always welcome.

These lessons will be sent out irregularly but generally at one or two-week intervals; a version with slashes instead of accents will be sent out immediately after the accented version. Now, if you're sitting comfortably, we'll begin.

Aspiration

Aspiration is a way of indicating grammatical change in SG and, since it is widely used, it's best to start off by illustrating how it works. There are eighteen letters in Gaelic: five are vowels (a, e, i, o, and u, as in English), one is the letter "h", which is in a category all by itself, and the remaining letters are consonants (b, c, d, f, g, l, m, n, p, r, s, and t). Of the vowels, two (e and i) are called "slender" vowels, and three (a, o, and u) are called "broad" vowels. Of the consonants, all of them except l, n, and r can become aspirated in writing, and this changes their sound as well. (L, n, and r also sound different when aspirated in speech, but this is not marked in writing). To aspirate a letter, you simply put "h" after it when it appears at the beginning of a word, for example:


Letter Aspirated Form Sounds Like...
b
bh
"v" as in "vet"
c
ch
"ch" as in "loch"
d
dh
silent after a slender vowel; like "y" in "yet" before a slender vowel; like "gh" in "ugh!" after or before a broad vowel.
f
fh
silent
g
gh
silent after a slender vowel; like "y" in "yet" before a slender vowel; like "gh" in "ugh!" after or before a broad vowel.
m
mh
"v" as in "vet"
p
ph
"f" as in "fox"
s
sh
"h" as in "his"
t
th
"h" as in "his"; silent at the end of a word


The purpose of aspiration is to show certain kinds of grammatical change, just as in English we put "-ed" to the end of a verb (e.g. "walk" --> "walked") to show the past tense or put "s" at the end of a word to show the plural (e.g. "hat" -- "hats"). The difference is that Scots Gaelic, in common with the other Celtic languages, puts the change at the beginning of the word instead. For example, one common use of aspiration is to indicate certain kinds of possession. The SG word "mo" means "my" and causes aspiration (where possible) on the following word. The word "taigh" means "house". To say "my house" in Gaelic, you would say "mo thaigh". "Taigh" is pronounced like the English word "tie", but "mo thaigh" sounds like "mo hie". Or to take another example, "c" means "dog", so to say "my dog" you would say "mo ch". "C" sounds like "koo", but in "ch" the "k" sound is dropped in favour of a "ch" sound like in the word "loch" -- a sound halfway between "k" and "h".

There is no "eclipsis" in Scots Gaelic as there is in Irish.



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"To Be"

i) Present Tense, Affirmative

Like some other languages, for example Spanish, the Gaelic languages have two verbs that cover the range of the English verb "to be". One of them is used to join a noun with a noun, e.g. "Iain is a teacher" or "Calum is a Scotsman". The other one, which we'll look at in this lesson, is used to join a noun with an adjective -- e.g. "Ruairidh is tall", "Colin is old", etc. The basic present tense form of the verb is "tha" and the pronouns equivalent to English "I", "you", "he", etc. are as follows:

tha mi -- I am
tha thu -- you [singular] are
tha e -- he is; it is
tha i -- she is; it is
tha sinn -- we are
tha sibh -- you [plural] are
tha iad -- they are

(Note the difference between "thu" and "sibh"; "thu" means "you" when speaking to one person only. "Sibh" means "you" when speaking to more than one person but is also a polite form you can use when showing respect to someone who is older). The pronouns "e" and "i" mean "it" when they refer to masculine and feminine nouns rather than people, but for now I'll just use them in their personal sense.

The above forms are easily joined with adjectives like "beag" (little), "mr" (big), "g" (young), "sona" (happy), etc.:

Tha mi sona. -- I am happy.
Tha iad beag. -- They are little.
Tha e mr. -- He is big.
Tha sinn g. -- We are young.
"Tha mi fallain, tha mi g" -- "I am healthy, I am young"

-- that last example is a line from a Runrig song, incidentally.


Some other adjectives to get you started:

sgth -- tired tioram -- dry
fuar -- cold fliuch -- wet
blth -- warm snog -- nice
trang -- busy math -- good
leisg -- lazy dona -- bad
bragha -- beautiful dorcha -- dark
ciallach -- sensible grach -- stupid


ii) Present Tense, Negative

Just as in English and other languages, the verb "to be" in SG is highly irregular. To give the negative form of "tha", i.e. in order to say "... is not...", you have to use a different form altogether -- "chan eil":

Chan eil mi sgth. -- I am not tired.
Chan eil iad beag. -- They are not little.
Chan eil i g. -- She is not young.
Chan eil sinn sona. -- We are not happy. (etc.)


iii) Present Tense, Question

In English to ask a question we can just rearrange the word order (e.g. "you are happy" becomes "are you happy?") or we can even leave the word order as it is and just change the tone of voice ("you *are* happy?") In SG, however, we have to use a question word before a verb in order to ask a question using that verb. The question word is "an", but this changes to "am" before the letters b, f, m, and p. Unfortunately since "tha" is irregular, we can't just put the question word before "tha"; we have to put it in front of an irregular form called "bheil". Since "bheil" begins with a "b", this makes the question word "am":

Am bheil thu sgth? Are you tired?
Am bheil iad sona? Are they happy?
Am bheil e g? Is he young?
Am bheil mi fuar? Am I cold?

Over time, however, the "am" has become shortened in speech and writing to "a", so that questions are now usually asked with "a bheil...?" I've shown you the full form because you will still come across it in older books and because it helps to understand the basic rules involved with asking a question generally.

There is no word for "yes" or "no" as such in Gaelic, so a question tends to get answered with either an affirmative or negative form of the verb that was contained in the question. For example, the question "am bheil iad sona?" (are they happy?) can be answered affirmatively with "tha", which just means "are"; the negative answer would be "chan eil" (are not). When the question is "am bheil...?", "tha" becomes a "yes" answer and "chan eil" becomes a "no" answer -- but "yes" and "no" in Gaelic are always different depending on what verb is in the question.


iv) Present Tense, Negative Question

A negative question corresponds to the English phrases "Isn't he/she/it...?" or "Aren't I/they...?" In SG the negative question word is "nach" and, as usual, an irregular form of "tha" is used -- "eil":

Nach eil mi sona? Aren't I happy?
Nach eil e grach? Isn't he stupid?

As with "am bheil...?" the answer to a negative question with "nach eil...?" is either "tha" (corresponding to "yes") or "chan eil" (corresponding to "no").



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Verbal Noun

The verbal noun is a kind of verb expressing ongoing action, very much like the English verbs which end in "-ing" like "walking" or "laughing". There are two parts to each verbal noun, the verb itself and "a'" ("ag" before a vowel) coming before it. It is used with "tha" and with the different forms of "tha". Some common verbal nouns are:

a' dol -- going
a' tighinn -- coming
a' coiseachd -- walking
a' cluich -- playing
ag obair -- working
ag l -- drinking
a' bruidhinn -- talking, speaking
a' ruith -- running
a' leughadh -- reading
a' sgrobhadh -- writing
ag itheadh -- eating
ag isdeachd -- listening (etc.)


Tha sinn ag isdeachd. -- We are listening.
Chan eil iad ag obair. -- They are not working.
Nach eil i a' dol? -- Isn't she going?
A bheil sibh a' leughadh? -- Are you reading? (etc.)


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Vocabulary

a-mireach -- tomorrow
a-nis -- now
a-rithist -- again
an-d -- yesterday
an-diugh -- today
an-drsda -- at the moment
an-seo -- here
an-sin -- there
aosda -- old, aged
bn -- fair-haired
cerr -- wrong
ceart -- right, correct
cuideachd -- also, too
dearg -- red
dubh -- black, dark-haired
fhathast -- yet
geal -- white
iongantach -- wonderful
laghach -- nice
ln -- full
modhail -- polite
psda -- married
riaraichte -- satisfied
smaoineachail -- amazing
seo -- this
sin -- that
teth -- hot
uaine -- green
r -- new, fresh









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Eamon 
Posted: 18-Dec-2003, 03:19 PM
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CelticRose, great topic. I have been learing Irish for a few years now and you can really see the similarities to Scots Gaelic.

Don't mind me, I will be lurking around the background taking notes!

Eamon


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"I care not whether I die tomorrow or next year, if only my deeds live after me." -Cuchullain

"Bodh roinnt de sin agat!"
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DesertRose 
Posted: 18-Dec-2003, 05:06 PM
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QUOTE (Eamon @ Dec 18 2003, 03:19 PM)
CelticRose, great topic. I have been learing Irish for a few years now and you can really see the similarities to Scots Gaelic.

Don't mind me, I will be lurking around the background taking notes!

Eamon

Hi Eamon! Good to see you here. Have fun taking notes. I am taking many myself! biggrin.gif I have studied a little Irish myself and like you can see some similarities. Feel free to join in too!

Hi Seba! Hi Cu Dubh!

Tha a mhar! Tha mi gu math anis tapadh. Is toigh leum Gaidlig. The e gle fhuar ach tioram ann in Arizona an-drasda.

(Greetings! I am fine thankyou. I love Gaelic. It is very cold but dry in Arizona today. )

Mar sin leat.
Bye for now.

Hello to Scottish2 and thanks for helping out! bye1.gif
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C Dubh 
Posted: 19-Dec-2003, 01:18 AM
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Hal a h-uile duine biggrin.gif

QUOTE
Tha a mhar!


Cit an do fhuair thu an abairt sin Celtic Rose? Cha cuala mi riamh sin, ach tha mise nam fhear-ionnsachaidh fhathast (Thisich mi an-uiridh agus 's fior thoil leam a' Ghidhlig cuideachd).. Cuin a thisich thu a' Ghidhlig ionnsachadh?

Where did you get that expression Celtic Rose? I've never heard it before, but I am still a learner. (I started last year and I really like Gaelic also). When did you start learning Gaelic?

Tha mi 'n dchas gum bi deireadh-seachdain math agaibh! biggrin.gif
Hope you all have a good weekend!

Mar sin leibh an-drsda. beer_mug.gif


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Bruidhinnibh Gidhlig Rium.
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DesertRose 
Posted: 19-Dec-2003, 05:55 PM
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I found a site where you can actually learn and hear the Gaelic being spoken. The instructor does a lesson a week! Plays music with Gaelic lyrics too!


http://www.impressions.uk.com/castles/gaelic.shtml
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DesertRose 
Posted: 19-Dec-2003, 06:14 PM
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A Lesson In Gaelic
A Quick Gaelic Lesson

Welcome ........... Failte! (Fal-tchuh)
Good Morning ...........Madainn mhath (Mah-teen vah)
Good Evening/Afternoon ........ Feasgar math (Fess-gur mah)
Good Night ......... Oidhche mhath (Oy-huh vah)
How are you? .......... Ciamar a tha sibh? (Kimmer uh ha shiv)
I am fine .............. Tha mi gu math. (Ha mee goo mah)
Very good!.............. Gl mhath (Glay vah)
Good health! ............ Slainte mhath (Slan-chuh vor)
Please ................ Ma 'se do thoil e. (Ma sheh daw hol eh)
Thank you............... Tahadh leibh. (Tapuh lev)
You're welcome ............. 'S e do bheatha.(Sheh daw veh-huh)
Good-bye ............... Mar shin leibh. (Mar shin lev)
Up with the Gaelic! ....... Suas leis a GhhidhligI (Su-iss laysh a Gah-lik)

Scottish Gaelic, the language of the Scottish Highlands and Islands once spoken throughout Scotland is one of the few Celtic Languages surviving in Western Europe.

Scottish Gaelic is quite different from the Germanic and Romance languages and expresses a distinctive cultural history. Its roots in the British Isles are far older than those of English. Indeed, it is the source of numerous English words: galore (gu le?r), whiskey (uisge beatha), smidgen (smidean) and even the English expression "smashing" (Is math sin..that's good). It is closely related to Irish and Manx Gaelic and more distantly to Welsh, Cornish and Breton. Its use has declined seriously over the past two centuries throughout the world. Gaelic speaking communities are now found only in parts of the Highlands, the outer reaches of the Hebrides and in scattered emigrant communities in Canada.

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DesertRose 
Posted: 19-Dec-2003, 06:33 PM
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QUOTE (C Dubh @ Dec 19 2003, 01:18 AM)
Hal a h-uile duine biggrin.gif



Cit an do fhuair thu an abairt sin Celtic Rose? Cha cuala mi riamh sin, ach tha mise nam fhear-ionnsachaidh fhathast (Thisich mi an-uiridh agus 's fior thoil leam a' Ghidhlig cuideachd).. Cuin a thisich thu a' Ghidhlig ionnsachadh?

Where did you get that expression Celtic Rose? I've never heard it before, but I am still a learner. (I started last year and I really like Gaelic also). When did you start learning Gaelic?

Tha mi 'n dchas gum bi deireadh-seachdain math agaibh! biggrin.gif
Hope you all have a good weekend!

Mar sin leibh an-drsda. beer_mug.gif

Halo, de tha de ah-uile duine?
hello, what's doing everyone

Cu dubh, ciamar a tha thu fhein. tha agam tha mhar from a friend who speaks Gaidhlig. He lives in the Lowlands.

Black dog, How are you yourself? I have tha mhar (greetings)

tha mi gu doigheil, ach cho traing an-drasada.
I am fine but so busy at the moment.

Abheil thu ionnsaichadh Gaidlig?
Are you still learning Gaelic?

Suas leis A' Gaidhlig
Up with Gaelic

Mar sin leat ah-uile duinne.

I started learning a little Gaelic last year, but I do not speak well at all. Was hoping this thread would help me. It is hard to find sites that give pronunciation as well.
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C Dubh 
Posted: 20-Dec-2003, 06:45 AM
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Madainn mhath. Tha gu math tapadh leat, agus tha mi cho trang cuideachd an-drsda. Tha, tha mi ag ionnsachadh Gidhlig fhathast.

Sgriobhaidh mi ann am Beurla a-nis ma tha sin ceart gu ler...

Celtic Rose I think you & everyone else here are doing great posting the lessons & learning a bit of Gaelic. I know it's more difficult for say someone over in the U.S to learn Gaelic than it is for someone living in Scotland, but I was talking to an American guy last week & he is very fluent in the language, so much so that a native speaker remarked that his accent sounded as if he had been brought up in Skye! Imagine that. So it's more difficult, but not impossible by any means. Also total fluency in the language need not be your goal. Learning a wee bit can be just as fun & rewarding biggrin.gif Soon as i get more time i'm going to check out the rest of this board. Mar sin leibh an-drsda.

Oh I'll ask around about that greeting. It will be correct if your friend is a Gaelic speaker. I've just never heard it before. rolleyes.gif
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DesertRose 
Posted: 20-Dec-2003, 03:59 PM
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Cu Dubh! Thank you for all your help in here. I wish others would join us. Maybe they are taking notes! biggrin.gif I had never heard of the term for greeting Tha a mhar either until my friend used to say it all the time and spoke Scots Gaelic pretty well and is from Dundee. I think that is the Lowlands unsure.gif The problem I am having is I can remember very very basic stuff, but when it gets harder, then I forget! huh.gif There is so much grammar to learn and keep up with. In my searching last night I came across one site that is really good with grammar and I will post it here. The hardest thing to find on the net are Gaelic phrases!

In the meantime, I will try to translate what you said.

Madainn mhath. Tha gu math tapadh leat, agus tha mi cho trang cuideachd an-drsda. Tha, tha mi ag ionnsachadh Gidhlig fhathast.

(Good morning. I am good thank you, and I am also busy at the moment. I am learning Gaelic yet. )

Sgriobhaidh mi ann am Beurla a-nis ma tha sin ceart gu ler...
I haven't a clue what you said here! unsure.gif biggrin.gif Something about English though. biggrin.gif

Co dhiu tha egle mhath. Tha sin ualhasach math. Tha mi toilichte ciunntin uat, thoir toigh or fein.

Anyway, I like it. That is really good. I am pleased to hear from you. Take care of yourself.

Here is another pronounciation site.

http://www.akerbeltz.org/fuaimean/roradh.htm

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DesertRose 
Posted: 20-Dec-2003, 04:49 PM
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Hey I found this! Gaelic phrases!

http://members.tripod.com/~scotgaelic/phrases.html

Scottish Gaelic Conversational Phrases


for impressing, intimidating, and annoying your
friends, family and pets


Here are a few phrases, mostly simple, some useful, some a bit whimsical, to help you communicate in Scottish Gaelic.

Spoken Scottish Gaelic, unlike spoken English, flows seamlessly from word to word. Practice saying the whole phrase as if it were all one word, with no breaks in it.

Remember that "ch" always sounds like "Bach" or "Loch." And always roll your "R"'s -- though not all over the place, like Groundskeeper Willie on "The Simpsons" -- more as a simple popped "R" sound.

And keep in mind that no pronunciation guide can adequately convey the unique sound of spoken Scottish Gaelic -- anyone interested in an authentic sound should consider trying one of the instructional self-study courses including videotapes and/or audiotapes, to be found on the SGLABA Books page.


Na h-Abairtean (the Phrases)


"D an t-ainm a tha oirbh?" (Jeh un TAH-num uh HAW-ruv?) What's your name?

"'S mise.....(insert your name)." (SMIH-shuh...) "My name is..."

"Ciamar a tha sibh?" (KIM-mer uh HAH shiv?) "How are you?"

"Tha gu math, tapadh leibh." (HAH guh MAH, TAH-puh LEH-eev) "I'm well, thank you."

"D tha thu a danamh?" (Jeh HAH oo uh JEE-ah-nuv?) "What are you doing?"

"Chan eil mi a' danamh cil." (chahn-yel mee uh JEE-ah-nuv KAHL) "I'm not doing anything."

"Tha mi airson Gidhlig ionnsachadh." (hah mee EHR-sawn GAH-lik YOON-sa-hugkh) "I want to learn Gaelic."

"A bheil an t-acras ort?" (Uh VEHL uhn TAH-krus orsht?) "Are you hungry?"

"Ceart gu ler. Tha an t-acras orm." (Kyarsht guh LYAWR. Hahn TAH-krus AW-rum) "You bet. I'm hungry."

"Bu toigh leam bracaist a ghabhail." (Boo tuh LUH-oom BRAH-kawsht uh GAH-ull) "I would like to have breakfast."

"Cit a bheil an taigh beag?" (KAHTCH uh vehl un tye bek?) "Where's the bathroom?"

"An toir thu dhomh pg?" (Un TUH-r oo ghawnh pawk?) "Will you give me a kiss?"

"Cha toir, ach bheir mi dhut sgailc!" (Chah TUH-r, ach vehr mee ghoot skahlk!) "No, but I'll slap you!"

"Slinte mhr agad!" (SLAHN-tchuh VORR AH-kut!) "Great health to you!" ("Cheers!")

"Nach i tha teth an-diugh?" (nahch ee hah TCHEH un-DJOO?) "Isn't it hot today? (It's hot today.)"

"Bha e bragha an-de." (Vah eh BREE-uh un-DJEH) "It was beautiful yesterday."

"C an caora sin cmhla riut a chunnaic mi an-raoir?" (Kaw uhn KEU-ra shin KAW-la root uh CHOO-nik mee uhn-royer?) "Who was that sheep I saw you with last night?"

"Cha b'e sin caora, 'se sin mo chile a bha innte!" (Chah beh shin KEU-ra, sheh shin moe CHYEH-luh uh vah EEN-tchuh!) "That was no sheep, that was my spouse!"

"Tha gaol agam ort." (Hah GEUL AH-kum orsht) "I love you."

"Tha gaol agam ort-fhin." (Hah GEUL AH-kum orsht-HEH-een) "I love you too."

"Chan eil fhios agam." (CHAHN-yel iss AH-kum) "I don't know."

"D tha thu ag iarraidh?" (jeh HAH oo ug EE-uh-ree) "What do you want?"

"Tha mi ag iarraidh briosgaid!" (hah mi ug-EE-uh-ree BRISS-kahtch) "I want a cookie!"

"'S toigh leam briosgaidean gu mr!" (STUH LUH-oom BRISS-kaht-chun goo MAWR) "I like cookies -- a lot!"

"A bheil Gidhlig agaibh?" (uh vil GAH-lik AH-kiv) "Do you speak Gaelic?"

"Tha, beagan." (hah, BECK-un) "Yes, a little."

"D thuirt thu?" (jeh HOORSHT oo) "What did you say?"

"Can a-rithist sin?" (kahn uh-REE-isht shin) "Say that again?"

"Chan eil mi a' tuigsinn." (chan-yel mi uh-TOOK-shin) "I don't understand."

"Tha mi duilich." (hah mee DOOH-lich) "I'm sorry."

"Gabhaibh mo leisgeul." (GAHV-iv moe LESH-kul) "Excuse me."

"Ceart gu ler." (kyarsht guh LYAWR) "Right enough" -- "Okay."

"Tha sin gl mhath!" (hah shin gleh VAH) "That's very good!"

"'S math sin!" (SMAH-shin) "Great!" -- "Terrific!"

"Ma 'se ur toil e." (mah sheh oor TUL-leh) "please."

"Tapadh leat." (TAH-puh LAHT -- also -- TAHplett) "Thank you."

"Mran taing." (MAW-run TAH-eeng) "Many thanks."

"'Se do bheatha." (sheh doe VEH-huh) "You're welcome."

"Mar sin leibh an drsda." (mahr shin LEH-eev un DRAHSS-tuh) "Ta ta for now."




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C Dubh 
Posted: 21-Dec-2003, 05:50 AM
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'S e do bheatha.

QUOTE
In the meantime, I will try to translate what you said....

Tha sin ceart. Gl mhath!

A-nise an t-seantans eile a sgriobh mi bha ag radh...
Now the other sentence that I wrote said...

Sgriobhaidh mi - I will write
Ann am Beurla - In Enlish
A-nis - Now
Ma tha sin Ceart gu ler - If that's Ok.

I asked a native Gael last night about that phrase 'Tha a mhar' & she told me that it doesn't mean anything in Gaelic. I don't want to discredit your friends Gaelic. Everyone learning Gaelic makes spelling or grammatical mistakes, but that phrase doesn't make sense at all in Gaelic. Sorry, but i feel it's better to know than to believe it means something.

QUOTE
tha e gle mhath...I like it

Bhiodh nas fherr a radh - 'S toil leam e'
It would be better to say - 'S toil leam e'... I like it.


Anyway that's just a minor point. See you soon.
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DesertRose 
Posted: 21-Dec-2003, 06:21 AM
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Cu Dubh! I feel better because I have only heard of this phrase "tha a mhar" from this one person and yet I have had other Gaelic speakers tell me they have never heard of this phrase. so that pretty much settles it. Thank you for researching it for me! Certainly don't want to mislead anyone on this thread. I appreciate your help so very much! And thank you for correcting me on the phrase --- "I like it! " I know very little and find that I depend on you to teach me and others. I so very much appreciate you being here to help me out. Thank you , thank you! notworthy.gif

Nollaig chridheil agus Bliadhna mhatha ur newyear.gif

Some more Gaelic verbs and nouns.



tha
haa
hi ha
there is, there are

tha mi
ha mi
sc / estic
I am

tha thu
ha u
ets / ests
you are

tha sibh
ha shiv
sou / esteu
you are

tha sinn
ha shing
som / estem
we are

tha iad
ha iat
sn / estn
they are

tha e
ha e
ell s / est
he is

tha i
ha i
ella s / est
she is

am mise?
mi sh
sc jo?
is it I?

is tu (sibh)
is ttu / shiiv
s tu / sou voslatres
it's you

an e?
nee? nyee?
s (ell)?
is it? is he?

an e seo? ('n e seo?)
ne sho
s aquest...?
is this?

'se so
she sho
aix s...
this is...

an robh?
n rov
hi havia...?
was there, were there

bha
vaa
hi havia
there was, there were

am bheil?
m veil
hi ha...?
is there, are there

am bi?
m bii
hi haur?
will there be?

bithidh
bpii hi
hi haur
there will be

co tha'n sin?
ko han shin
qui s (all)?
who is there?

tha mise
ha mi sh
jo sc / estic
I am

co iad sin?
ko iat shin
qui sn aquets?
who are these?

cite 'm bheil?
kaa jm veil
on s / sn ?
where is / where are?

tha e anseo
ha n sho
s aqu
it is here

co ris tha thu (sibh) bruidhinn?
ko rish ha u (shiv) bru ing
amb qui est parlant?
to whom do you speak?

tha riut-sa (ribh-se)
ha rut s, ha riiv s
am tu / vosaltres
to you

cuin a bhitheas?
kun viis
quan hi haur?
when will there be?

cuin a tha?
kun haa
quan hi haur?
when is there?

o chionn ghoirid
okh yunn ghrich
fa poc
a little while ago

ann an tiota
ann n ji tt
d'aqu poc
in a little while

ciod e sin?
ktt ee shin
qu s aix?
what is that?

ciod tuille?
ktt u li
qu ms?
what more?

d an dolaidh?
jeen do li
quin mal hi ha?
what harm?

ciod seo?
ktt sho
qu s aix?
what's this?

thoir / thoiribh toigh
hor (ho riv) dov
ves / aneu amb compte
take care

an cluinn thu / sibh
n gllu ing u (shiv)
sens? sentiu?
do you hear?

innis / innsibh domh
inish (in shiv) dov
digues / digueu
tell me

na innis / innsibh
na inish (in shiv)
no diguis / no digueu
do not tell

an aithne duit / duibh
n a n dut / du iv
coneixes? coneixeu?
do you know?

am bheil fios agad / agaibh
veil fis a kt
saps? sabeu?
are you aware?

chan eil fhios a'am
khan eil is aam
no s
I do not know

chan aithne domh
khan a n dov
no conec
I am not aware

is aithne domh
is a n dov
conec
I know


adverbis / adverbs

mr, gu mr
moor, gu moor
gran; en gran part
large, largely

ceart, gu ceart
kyarst, gu kyarst
correcte, com cal
right, rightly

an deigh sin
n jei shin
desprs
afterwards

rithis, a rithisd
ri hish, ri hisht
una altra vegada
again

mu thrath
mu raa
ja
already

an comhnuidh
n go ni
sempre
always

m'an cuairt
man gu rshch
al voltant
around

mar
mar
com
as

idir
et jir
gens, en absolut
at all

air falbh
er fa lav
des d'aqu
away

air ais
er ash
cap enrere
back

roimh
roi
abans
before

air deireadh
er je rgh
darrere
behind

gu moch
gu mokh
aviat, d'hora
early

gu brath, am feasd
gu praa, m faast
per sempre
ever; (future) forever

riamh
rii v
mai
ever (past)

gu h-anabarrach
gu ha na pa rakh
sumament, molt
extremely

air aghaidh
er ghi
endavant
forward

a nasgaidh
na ski
de franc
gratis

an seo
n sho
aqu
here

cia mar
ke mar
com
how

gu dearbh
gut ja rav
s clar
indeed

a-staigh
sti
a dins
inside

direach sin
jii rakh shin
exactament!
just so

nis
niish
ara
now

gu tric
gu triikhk
freqentament
often

a-muigh
mui
fora
outside

thairis
ha rish
a travs
over (see idioms)

theagamh
he kuv
potser
perhaps

gu h-ainmic
gu ha ni mik
poques vegades
seldom

mar seo, mar sin
mar sho, mar shin
d'aquesta / aquella manera
so

gu h-aithghearr
gu hi yar
aviat
soon

fhathast
ha st
encara
still (yet)

ansin
n shin
llavores, all
then / there

an-diugh
n ju
avui
today

a-mireach
maa rakh
dem
tomorrow

an earar
n ye rr
dem passat
the day after tomorrow

ro
ro
massa (gran etc)
too

gl
ge lee
molt
very

cia as
ki as
d'on
whence

cuin, nuair
kun? nu r
quan? quan
when? / when

cite?
kaat j? far
on? on
where? / where

carson? airson
kar son? er son
perqu? per qu
why? why

an-d
n jee
ahir
yesterday

an-sud
n shut
ms enll
yonder


al camp / in the country

tha mi dol mach gus an duthaich
I'm going out into the country
vaig fora al camp
ha mi ddoll makh gs n ddu ikh

bheil thu (sibh) dol fada?
are you going far?
va lluny?
veil u (shiv) ddoll fa t

beagan mhiltean
a few miles
unes quantes milles
bye kan vilt jn

am faigh mi comhla riut (ribh)?
may I accompany you?
el puc acompanyar?
m f mi koo lla rut (riv)?

gheibh, bith mi toilicht' do (bhur) cuideachd fhaotainn
yes, I'll be glad to have your company
si, star content de la seva companyia
yeiv, bpi mi tto likhj ddo (vur) kut jakht tting

an cum sinn an rathad mr?
shall we keep the high road?
ens quedem a la carretera principal?
n gum shing n ra ht moor?

cumadh sa chuid is mo de'n uidhe
yes, most of the way
s, la majoria del cam
ku mi s khutj is mu tjen ui

chan eil an rathad comhnard
the road is not even
el cam no s pla
khan neil n ra ht koo nrrt

tha e air a mhilleadh le claisean nan cuibhle
it is destroyed by the wheel ruts
queda fet malb per les roderes
ha e eir vi lykh le klla shn nan gui lu

sud frith-rath'dan laghach
yonder is a nice footpath
all hi ha un cam bonic
shutt fri ra ttan ll ghkh

gabhaidh sinn e
we will take it
l'agafem
gka vi shing r

theagamh nach fhaod sluagh bhi ga'il a cheum seo
perhaps people are not allowed to take this path
potser la gent no tinguin dret a anar per aquest cam
hei kv nakh utt slla vi gkaal a khyeim sho

faodaidh, tha e cumanta gu leoir
yes, it's quite public
si, s pblic ('bastant pblic')
fu tte, ha e k mann tt gku lyoor

co leis am fearann seo?
whose ground is this?
de qui s aquest terreny?
ko leish m fe rn sho?

buinidh e do oighreachd
it's part of ____ estate
s una part de l'estat de...
bpu ni e ddo oi rakhk

cite am beil an tigh mr?
where is the mansion house?
on s la casa pairal?
kaatj m beil n ddi moor?

sin e air a chnoc
there it is on the hill
all, al puig
shin e eir khnokhk

's grinn a tha e air a dhon le crao'an
it is beautifully sheltered by trees
s abrigat bonicament pels abres
skring ha e ar yii n lei kru n

den t-ait' tha sin air a dhnadh a-staigh?
what is that fenced place?
quin s aquell lloc tancat?
djen ddaatj ha shin er ghun ngh sti?

'se sin aite dinte airson arach easagan is eoin mar sin
that is a preserve for rearing pheasants and such birds
s una reserva per criar faisans i ocellss emblants
she shin aatj dduntj er son aa rakh e sa kn is yoon mar shin

den tirm tha sud?
what rumbling noise is that?
qu s aquell baluern?
djen ddo rom ha shutt?

'se sud fuaim an eas
that is the noise of the waterfall
s el soroll del salt d'aigua
she shutt fu em n yeis

feumaidh gum beil e gle mhr
it must be very large
deu ser molt gran
fei mi gum beil i glei voor

tah e math arda
it is pretty high
s bastant alt
ha e ma aar tt

cite bheil e?
where is it?
on s?
kaatj vel ee?

tha e air taobh thall na coille sin
it is beyond that wood
s ms enll d'aquell bosc
ha ee eir ttuv haull n koo lly shin

agus 'se seo tuathanas an uachdarainn?
and this is the proprietor's farm?
i aquesta s la granja del propietari?
a gs she sho ttu a ns n ukh k ran

'se
yes
s
shee

'se briagh ma h-achaidhean sin
these are beautiful fields
aquest sn camps bonics
sprii a n ha khi n shin

seadh, tha coltach talamh math air
yes, it seems to be good soil
s, sembla ser bona terra
shugh, ha koll takh ta llv ma eir

gheibh sinn sealladh math o'n chnoc seo
we can get a fine view from this hill
podem tenir una bona vista d'aquest puig
yeiv shing sha llgh ma on khnoknk sho

chi mi an amhainn a seo
I can see the river from here
puc veure un riu des d'aqu
khii mi n a ving a sho

chi, san loch as a bheil i tighinn
yes, and the lake it comes out of
si, i el llac en surt
khii sn llokh as veil i tjiing

cite bheil eaglais na sgre seo?
where is the church of the parish?
on s l'esglsia de la parrquia?
kaatj veil ei klash n skii r sho

tha i fasig air a chlachan
it is near the village
s aprop del poble
ha e fashk eir khla khan

'n e sin am baile beag air an deach' sinn seachad?
is that the little town we passed?
s aquell el poble que hem passat?
nye shin m ba l peik eir n jakh shing sha kht

'se
it is
s
she

den t-ait' tha sud?
what place is yon?
quin s aquell lloc ms enll?
djein ddaaj ha shut?

'se sud a mhuilinn
yon is the mill
all s el mol
she shutt a vu ling

den tigh tha faisg oirre?
what house is near it?
quina casa s aprop seu?
djein ddi ha fiishk o r

tha mi'n duil gur e tigh-sda
I think it's an inn
em fa l'efecte que s un fonda
ha min ddul gur e tti oo stt

's briagh an t-aite seo
this is a beautiful district
s un zona bonica
sprii a n ddaa tj sho

's briagh, gu h-araid san t-samhradh
yes, especially in summer
s, sobretot a l'estiu
sprii a, gku ha ritj sn ddau rgh

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Aaediwen 
Posted: 21-Dec-2003, 06:39 PM
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Ciamar a tha sibhse? Tha e fuer an-diugh, a tha e math.
tha mi ag ionnsachadh na Gidhlig, cuideachd. Chan eil e gle` mhath sad.gif

Thanks for the thread smile.gif I should have paid more attention to it before, and now my brain is about to explode. I'll need to go through this and my Scots Gaelic text a little more I guess smile.gif

Tapadh Leibh; an-drasda
Danke Schoen, bis morgen
Muchas Gracias

Dass muss immer gesprochen sein
(German: this must always be spoken)


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DesertRose 
Posted: 22-Dec-2003, 03:58 PM
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QUOTE (Aaediwen @ Dec 21 2003, 06:39 PM)
Ciamar a tha sibhse? Tha e fuer an-diugh, a tha e math.
tha mi ag ionnsachadh na Gidhlig, cuideachd. Chan eil e gle` mhath sad.gif

Thanks for the thread smile.gif I should have paid more attention to it before, and now my brain is about to explode. I'll need to go through this and my Scots Gaelic text a little more I guess smile.gif

Tapadh Leibh; an-drasda
Danke Schoen, bis morgen
Muchas Gracias

Dass muss immer gesprochen sein
(German: this must always be spoken)

Halo Aaediwen! Cor math, de do chor fhein? Gle mhath! Is toigh leum Gaidhlig.

Here is somemore Gaelic grammar to make your brain explode. I know mine is about to with all this. maybe it is too much! unsure.gif

Tha mi toiichte cluinntin uat, thoir toigh or fein.

Lesson 3: The Definite Article, the Nominative and Dative Cases

3.1: The Definite Article and the Nominative Case
3.2: The Definite Article and the Dative Case
3.3: Faclair
3.4: Obair
3.5: Obair eile


3.1: The Definite Article and the Nominative Case
There are four seperate cases that a noun may exist in. The most basic of these is the nominative case, the case found when the noun is the subject or direct object of a sentence. A couple of examples will show this explicitly:


Tha an c aig an doras.

Bha Calum anns an sgoil.
In the nominative case, the definite article can take on different forms depending on what i the gender of the noun is and ii what letter the noun begins with. These cases follow:


Masculine Noun beginning with b, m, p, f
If the masculine noun begins with the letters b, m, p or f, then the definite article changes from an to am. This sequence of letters will occur very often in the grammatical rules and you will soon be very well acquainted with them.


bta boat
am bta the boat

monadh moor
am monadh the moor

fear male persone, man
am fear the man

peann pen
am peann the pen



Feminine noun beginning with b, m, p, f
If the feminine noun begins with the letters b, m, p, c or g, then the definite article changes from an to a'. In addition, the nominative feminine noun is lenited, i.e. a h is placed after the initial letter which changes the sound of the noun. If the feminine noun begins with an f, lenition still occurs but the article remains an.


briosgaid biscuit, cookie
a' bhriogcaid the biscuit

min meal, oatmeal
a' mhin the meal

pob pipe, bagpipe
a phob the pipe

glas a lock
a' ghlas the lock

caileag a girl, lassie
a' chaileag the girl

frinn truth
an fhrinn the truth



Masculine noun beginning with a vowel
If the masculine noun begins with a vowel then the definite article changes from an to an t-. The sound of the definite article is dependent on whether the initial vowel is slender or broad. Rmemeber that the slender vowels are i and e while the broad vowels are a, o and u.


aran bread
an t-aran the bread

ord hammer
an t-ord the hammer

m butter
an t-m the butter

eagal fear
an t-eagal the fear



Feminine noun beginning with s
If the feminine noun begins with an s followed by an l, n, r or a vowel then the definite article changes from an to an t-. The sound of the definite article is dependent on whether the initial vowel is slender or broad in exactly the same fashion as that case for masculine nominative nouns beginning with a vowel and taking an t-.


sil eye
an t-sil the eye

srid street
an t-srid the street

snthad needle
an t-snthad the needle

seachdain a week
an t-seachdain the week


3.2: The Definite Article and the Dative Case

Masculine Noun beginning with b, m, p, c, g
In the case of a masculine noun beginning with b, m, p, c or g and being in the dative case, i.e. a noun following one of the simple prepositions: air, aig, leis, ris, anns,, the article changes from an to a' and the noun is lenited, e.g.:


anns a' bhta in the boat

anns a' mhonadh on the moor

leis a' pheann with the pen

air a' ch on the dog

ris a' ghille to the boy

N.B.: These are special cases showing the form when no definite article is present:


le c with a dog

ann am bta in a boat

ri gille to a boy



Feminine noun beginning with b, m, p, c, g, f
For the feminine noun, the dative case introduces the first of several situations where a word must be slenderized, a process that changes the final syllable of a word and makes the vowel sound softer or closer to a slender vowel sound.

Slenderization entails either:

inserting an i after the last broad vowel or

substituting i for the last broad vowel.

If the final vowel is already slender or the noun ends in a, no slenderization takes place.


a' bhriosgaid the biscuit
air a' bhriosgaid on the biscuit
air briosgaid on a biscuit

a' mhin the meal
anns a' mhin in the meal
ann an min in meal

a' phob the pipe
leis a' phb with the pipe
le pb with a pipe

a' ghlas the lock
anns a' ghlais in the lock
ann an glais in a lock

a' chaileag the girl
air a' chaileig on the girl
air an caileig on a girl

an fhrinn the truth
leis an fhrinn with the truth
le frinn with truth

a' bhrg the shoe
air a' bhrig on the shoe
air brig on a shoe

a' ghealach the moon
anns a' ghealaich in the moon
ann an gealaich in a moon

a' mhala the eyebrow
air a' mhala on the eyebrow
air mala on an eyebrow



Masculine and Feminine nouns beginning with a vowel
In the dative case, both feminine and masculine nouns beginning with a vowel take an as the definite article. In addition, femine nouns slenderize where possible.


anns an aran in the bread

leis an ord with the hammer

ann an m in butter

leis an eagal with the fear

air an eala on the swan

ris an uinneig to the window

air aid on a hat

anns an eaglais in the church



Masculine and Feminine nouns beginning with s followed by l, n, r, vowel
If the masculine or feminine noun begins with an s followed by an l, n, r or a vowel then the definite article changes from an to an t-. Once again, femine nouns slenderize where possible.


air an t-seanair on the grandfather

anns an t-saoghal in the world

aig an t-saighdear at the soilder

leis an t-snth with the thread

anns an t-sil in the eye

air an t-srid on the street

leis an t-snthaid with the needle

aig an t-seachdain at the week


3.3: Faclair

bta m. boat
fear m. man, male version of one
t f. woman, female version of one
duine m. person
peann m. pen
briosagaid f. biscuit
min f. meal, oatmeal
mil f. honey
pob f. pipe, bagpipe
pob-mhr f. great highland bagpipe
poban f. smallpipe
glas f. lock
caileag f. girl, lassie
balach m. lad
gille m. boy
frinn f. truth
aran m. bread
m m. butter
ord m. hammer
saor m. carpenter, joiner
eagal m. fear
acras m. hunger
sil f. eye
srid f. street
rathad m. road
snth m. thread
snthad f. needle
seachdain f. week
am m. time
brg f. shoe
gealach f. moon
gran f. sun
mala f. eyebrow
eala f. swan
eun m. bird
Iain m. Ian, John
uinneag f. window
ad f. hat
eaglais f. church
seanair m. grandfather
bodach m. old man
seanmhair f. grandmother
cailleach f. old woman
saoghal m. world
saighdear m. soilder
sgreagag f. shrivelled old woman; penurious, stingy woman
sgreagair m. shrivelled old man; close-fisted, stingy man
ceann m. head
sgreab-chinn f. dandruff
sgian f. knife


3.4: Obair


am bta, am fear, an t, an duine, am peann, a' bhriosgaid, a' mhin, a' mhil, a' phob, a' ghlas, a' chaileag, am balach, an gille, an fhrinn.
an t-aran, an t-m, an t-ord, an saor, an t-eagal, an t-acras, an t-sil, an t-srid, an rathad, an snth, an t-snthad, an t-seachdain.
an t-am, a' bhrg, a' ghealach, a' ghran, a' mhala, an eala, an t-eun, an uinneag, an ad, an eaglais, an seanair, an t-seanmhair.
am bodach, a' chailleach, an saoghal, an saighdear, an sgreagag, an sgreagair, an ceann, an sgian.

aig a' bhta, air an , leis an t, ri duine, le peann, air a' bhriosgaid, anns a' mhin, ann an min.
leis a' phb-mhr, leis a' ghlais, aig a' chaileig, aig a' bhalach, air a' ghille, leis an fhrinn.
anns an aran, air an m, aig an ord, ri an t-saor, anns an eagal, leis an acras, ri sil, air an t-srid, air rathad.
air an t-snth, anns an t-snthaid, air an t-seachdain, aig an am, anns a' bhrig, air a' ghealaich, anns a' ghrn.
le mala, aig an eala, air an eun, aig an uinneig, air an aid, ri an eaglais, air an t-seanair, air an t-seamhair.
aig a' bhodach, aig a' chailleaich, anns an t-saoghal, aig an t-saighdear, le sgreagag, leis an sgreagair, air a' cheann, leis an sgian.
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C Dubh 
Posted: 22-Dec-2003, 05:54 PM
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Ceud taing. Nollaig chridheil agus Bliadhna mhath r dhut cuideachd Celtic-Rose.

Tha mi gu digheil Aaediwen, tapadh leat. Bha i gl fhuar ann an Alba an-diugh cuideachd. Gabhaidh mi steall mhr uisge-bheatha agus cumaidh mi blth. wink.gif

A' guidhe gach deagh dhrachd dhuibh uile aig an m seo dhen bhliadhna....Nollaig Chridheil bho Alba. king.gif
Wishing every good wish to you all at this time of year...Merry Christmas from Scotland.
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