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Posted: 26-Jun-2009, 03:09 AM
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On June 26, 1963, President John F. Kennedy visited West Berlin, where he expressed solidarity with the city's residents by declaring: ``Ich bin ein Berliner'' (I am a Berliner).

In 1870, the first section of Atlantic City's Boardwalk was opened to the public in New Jersey.

In 1919, the New York Daily News was first published.

In 1945, the charter of the United Nations was signed by 50 countries in San Francisco.

In 1948, the Berlin Airlift began in earnest after the Soviet Union cut off land and water routes to the isolated western sector of Berlin.

In 1950, President Harry S. Truman authorized the Air Force and Navy to enter the Korean conflict.

In 1959, President Dwight D. Eisenhower joined Britain's Queen Elizabeth II in ceremonies officially opening the St. Lawrence Seaway. Swedish boxer Ingemar Johansson knocked out Floyd Patterson in the third round of their match at New York's Yankee Stadium to win the heavyweight title.

In 1973, former White House counsel John W. Dean told the Senate Watergate Committee about an ``enemies list'' kept by the Nixon White House.

In 1977, 42 people were killed when a fire sent toxic smoke pouring through the Maury County Jail in Columbia, Tenn.

In 1988, three people were killed when a new Airbus A320 jetliner carrying more than 130 people crashed into a forest during an air show demonstration flight in Mulhouse, France.

In 1989, the Supreme Court ruled the death penalty may be imposed for murderers who committed their crimes as young as age 16, and for mentally retarded killers as well.

Ten years ago: An advance contingent of Russian troops flew into Kosovo to help reopen a strategic airport and join an uneasy alliance with NATO peacekeepers.

Five years ago: President George W. Bush won support from the 25-nation European Union for an initial agreement to help train Iraq's armed forces. A memorial service was held in Egg Harbor Township, N.J., for Paul M. Johnson Jr., an engineer slain by kidnappers in Saudi Arabia.

One year ago: The Supreme Court struck down a handgun ban in the District of Columbia as it affirmed, 5-4, that an individual right to gun ownership existed. Juan Alvarez, who triggered a 2005 rail disaster in Glendale, Calif., by parking an SUV on the tracks, was convicted of 11 counts of first-degree murder. (Alvarez was later sentenced to 11 consecutive life terms.)

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Posted: 27-Jun-2009, 04:07 PM
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June 27,

In 1846, New York and Boston were linked by telegraph wires.

In 1893, the New York stock market crashed.

In 1944, during World War II, American forces completed their capture of the French port of Cherbourg from the Germans.

In 1950, the U.N. Security Council passed a resolution calling on member nations to help South Korea repel an invasion from the North.

In 1957, more than 500 people were killed when Hurricane Audrey slammed through coastal Louisiana and Texas.

In 1969, police raided the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in New York's Greenwich Village; patrons fought back in clashes considered the birth of the gay rights movement.

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In 1977, the Supreme Court, in Bates v. State Bar of Arizona, struck down state laws and bar association rules that prohibited lawyers from advertising their fees for routine services. The Republic of Djibouti became independent of France.

In 1984, the Supreme Court ended the NCAA's monopoly on controlling college football telecasts, ruling such control violated antitrust law.

In 1986, the International Court of Justice at The Hague ruled that the United States had broken international law and violated the sovereignty of Nicaragua by aiding the contras.

In 1988, 57 people were killed in a train collision in Paris.

Ten years ago: George Papadopoulos, the head of Greece's 1967-74 military dictatorship, died of cancer in Athens at age 80. Juli Inkster shot a 6-under 65 to win the LPGA Championship, becoming the second woman to win the modern career Grand Slam (the first was Pat Bradley). The Seattle Mariners beat the Texas Rangers 5-2 in the final game at the Kingdome.

Five years ago: NATO leaders gathered in Turkey closed ranks on a pledge to take a bigger military role in Iraq; President George W. Bush declared that the alliance was poised to ``meet the threats of the 21st century.'' Insurgents threatened to behead Cpl. Wassef Ali Hassoun, a U.S. Marine who'd vanished in Iraq, in a videotape that aired on Arab television. (However, Hassoun contacted American officials in his native Lebanon the following month; after being reunited with his family in Utah, Hassoun disappeared in December 2004.)

One year ago: North Korea destroyed the most visible symbol of its nuclear weapons program, the cooling tower at its main atomic reactor at Yongbyon. (However, North Korea announced in September 2008 that it was restoring its nuclear facilities.) In Zimbabwe, roaming bands of government supporters heckled, harassed or threatened people into voting in a runoff election in which President Robert Mugabe was the only candidate.


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Posted: 30-Jun-2009, 03:49 AM
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On June 29, 1776, the Virginia state constitution was adopted, and Patrick Henry was made governor. On this date: In 1767, the British Parliament approved the Townshend Acts, which imposed import duties on certain goods shipped to America. (Colonists bitterly protested, prompting Parliament in 1770 to repeal the duties on all goods, except tea.) In 1946, authorities in British-ruled Palestine arrested more than 2,700 Jews in an attempt to stamp out extremists. In 1954, the Atomic Energy Commission voted against reinstating Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer's access to classified information. In 1959, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously struck down a New York State obscenity ban on exhibiting a French movie version of the D.H. Lawrence novel ``Lady Chatterley's Lover.'' In 1966, the United States bombed fuel storage facilities near the North Vietnamese cities of Hanoi and Haiphong. In 1967, Jerusalem was reunified as Israel removed barricades separating the Old City from the Israeli sector. In 1970, the United States ended a two-month military offensive into Cambodia. In 1972, the Supreme Court ruled the death penalty as it was being meted out could constitute ``cruel and unusual punishment.'' (The ruling prompted states to revise their capital punishment laws.) In 1988, the Supreme Court upheld the independent counsel law. In 2003, actress Katharine Hepburn died in Old Saybrook, Conn., at age 96. Ten years ago: Urging the biggest expansion in Medicare's history, President Bill Clinton proposed that the government help older Americans pay for prescription drugs. Some 10,000 demonstrators rallied in central Serbia, demanding the resignation of President Slobodan Milosevic. Abdullah Ocalan, leader of Turkey's rebel Kurds, was convicted of treason and sentenced to death. (The sentence was later commuted to life in prison.) Five years ago: A United Nations helicopter crashed in Sierra Leone, killing all 24 peacekeepers, aid workers and others on board. The Supreme Court blocked a law meant to shield Web-surfing children from online pornography. Randy Johnson of the Arizona Diamondbacks became the fourth pitcher to record 4,000 career strikeouts. (However, his team lost to the San Diego Padres, 3-2). One year ago: Zimbabwe's longtime ruler Robert Mugabe was sworn in as president for a sixth term after a widely discredited runoff in which he was the only candidate. Two weeks away from her 20th birthday, Inbee Park became the youngest winner of the U.S. Women's Open by closing with a 2-under 71 at Interlachen in Edina, Minn. Spain won the European Championship 1-0 over Germany for its first major title in 44 years.


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Posted: 30-Jun-2009, 03:51 AM
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On June 30, 1859, French acrobat Charles Blondin (born Jean Francois Gravelet) walked back and forth on a tightrope above the gorge of Niagara Falls as thousands of spectators watched.

On this date:

In 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt signed the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act.

In 1908, the Tunguska Event took place in Russia as an asteroid exploded above Siberia, leaving 800 square miles of scorched or blown-down trees.

In 1921, President Warren G. Harding nominated former President William Howard Taft to be chief justice of the United States, succeeding the late Edward Douglass White.

In 1934, Adolf Hitler carried out his ``blood purge'' of political and military rivals in Germany in what came to be known as ``The Night of the Long Knives.''

In 1936, the novel ``Gone with the Wind'' by Margaret Mitchell was published in New York.

In 1958, the U.S. Senate passed the Alaska statehood bill by a vote of 64-20.

In 1963, Pope Paul VI was crowned the 262nd head of the Roman Catholic Church.

In 1971, a Soviet space mission ended in tragedy when three cosmonauts aboard Soyuz 11 were found dead inside their spacecraft after it had returned to Earth.

In 1984, John Turner was sworn in as Canada's 17th prime minister, succeeding Pierre Elliott Trudeau.

In 1985, 39 American hostages from a hijacked TWA jetliner were freed in Beirut after being held 17 days.

Ten years ago: The Federal Reserve raised interest rates for the first time in two years, boosting the target for the funds rate a quarter-point to five percent. On the day the independent counsel law expired, Kenneth Starr wrapped up the Whitewater phase of his investigation as presidential friend Webster Hubbell pleaded guilty to a felony and a misdemeanor.

Five years ago: A federal appeals court approved an antitrust settlement Microsoft had negotiated with the Justice Department. The Iraqis took legal custody of Saddam Hussein and 11 of his top lieutenants, a first step toward the ousted dictator's expected trial for crimes against humanity. After nearly seven years of travel, the international Cassini spacecraft entered Saturn's orbit.

One year ago: President George W. Bush signed legislation to pay for the war operations in Iraq and Afghanistan for the rest of his presidency and beyond, hailing the $162 billion plan as a rare product of bipartisan cooperation. The United States announced that it was charging Saudi Arabian Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri with ``organizing and directing'' the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole in waters off Yemen - and would seek the death penalty.

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Posted: 04-Jul-2009, 06:27 PM
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On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence.

On this date:

In 1802, the United States Military Academy officially opened at West Point, N.Y.

In 1826, 50 years to the day after the Declaration of Independence was adopted, former presidents John Adams and Thomas Jefferson both died.

In 1831, the fifth president of the United States, James Monroe, died in New York City.

In 1872, the 30th president of the United States, Calvin Coolidge, was born in Plymouth, Vt.

In 1919, Jack Dempsey won the world heavyweight boxing title by defeating Jess Willard in Toledo, Ohio.

In 1939, baseball's ``Iron Horse,'' Lou Gehrig, said farewell to his fans at New York's Yankee Stadium.

In 1959, America's 49-star flag, honoring Alaskan statehood, was officially unfurled.

In 1960, America's 50-star flag, honoring Hawaiian statehood, was officially unfurled.

In 1966, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Freedom of Information Act, which went into effect the following year.

In 1976, Israeli commandos raided Entebbe airport in Uganda, rescuing almost all of the passengers and crew of an Air France jetliner seized by pro-Palestinian hijackers.

Ten years ago: White supremacist Benjamin Nathaniel Smith shot himself to death as police closed in on him in southern Illinois, hours after he'd apparently shot and killed a Korean man outside a church in Bloomington, Ind.; authorities believe Smith was also responsible for killing former college basketball coach Ricky Byrdsong during a three-day rampage targeting minorities. Pete Sampras and Lindsay Davenport won the singles titles at Wimbledon, defeating Andre Agassi and Steffi Graf.

Five years ago: A 20-ton slab of granite, inscribed to honor ``the enduring spirit of freedom,'' was laid at the World Trade Center site as the cornerstone of the Freedom Tower skyscraper that will replace the destroyed twin towers. Defending the war in Iraq, President George W. Bush told a cheering crowd outside the West Virginia state capitol that America was safer because Saddam Hussein was in a prison cell. Roger Federer overcame Andy Roddick's power game to win his second straight Wimbledon title, 4-6, 7-5, 7-6 (3), 6-4. Meg Mallon won the Women's U.S. Open with a 6-under 65.

One year ago: Former Sen. Jesse Helms, an unyielding champion of the conservative movement who'd spent three combative and sometimes caustic decades in Congress, died in Raleigh, N.C., at age 86. Dara Torres completed her improbable Olympic comeback at age 41, making the U.S. team for the fifth time by winning the 100 freestyle at the trials in Omaha, Neb. Actress Evelyn Keyes died in Montecito, Calif., at age 91.

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Posted: 05-Jul-2009, 03:41 PM
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On July 5, 1865, William Booth founded the Salvation Army in London On this date:

In 1811, Venezuela became the first South American country to declare independence from Spain.

In 1830, the French occupied the North African city of Algiers.

In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the National Labor Relations Act.

In 1940, during World War II, Britain and the Vichy government in France broke off diplomatic relations.

In 1946, the bikini, designed by Louis Reard, made its debut during an outdoor fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris.

In 1947, Larry Doby made his debut with the Cleveland Indians, becoming the first black player in the American League.

In 1948, Britain's National Health Service Act went into effect, providing government-financed medical and dental care.

In 1975, Arthur Ashe became the first black man to win a Wimbledon singles title as he defeated Jimmy Connors.

In 1978, a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft touched down safely in Soviet Kazakhstan with its two-member crew, including the first Polish space traveler, Maj. Miroslaw Hermaszewski.

In 1984, the Supreme Court weakened the 70-year-old ``exclusionary rule,'' deciding that evidence seized in good faith with defective court warrants could be used against defendants in criminal trials.

Ten years ago: President Bill Clinton began a four-day, cross-country tour to promote a plan for drawing jobs and investment to poverty-stricken areas that had not shared in the prosperity of the 1990s.

Five years ago: In a stinging rebuke, Mexican President Vicente Fox's chief of staff, Alfonso Durazo, resigned.

One year ago: Venus Williams won her fifth Wimbledon singles title, beating younger sister Serena Williams 7-5, 6-4 in the final. Gas station owner Kent Couch flew a lawn chair rigged with helium-filled balloons more than 200 miles across the Oregon desert, landing in a field in Cambridge, Idaho.

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Posted: 06-Jul-2009, 01:14 AM
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On July 6, 1944, an estimated 168 people died in a fire that broke out during a performance in the main tent of the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus in Hartford, Conn. (Among the survivors was future actor Charles Nelson Reilly, then age 13.)

On this date:

In 1535, St. Thomas More was executed in England for high treason.

In 1777, during the American Revolution, British forces captured Fort Ticonderoga in New York.

In 1809, French troops arrested Pope Pius VII, who had excommunicated Emperor Napoleon I.

In 1885, French scientist Louis Pasteur successfully tested an anti-rabies vaccine on a boy who had been bitten by an infected dog.

In 1917, during World War I, Arab forces led by T.E. Lawrence and Auda Abu Tayi captured the port of Aqaba from the Turks.

In 1928, the first all-talking feature, ``Lights of New York,'' had its gala premiere in New York.

In 1945, President Harry S. Truman signed an executive order establishing the Medal of Freedom.

In 1957, Althea Gibson became the first black tennis player to win a Wimbledon singles title, defeating fellow American Darlene Hard 6-3, 6-2.

In 1988, 167 North Sea oil workers were killed when a series of explosions and fires destroyed a drilling platform.

In 1989, the U.S. Army destroyed its last Pershing IA missiles at an ammunition plant in Karnack, Texas, under terms of the 1987 Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty.

Ten years ago: Ehud Barak took office as prime minister of Israel, pledging to seek peace with neighboring Arab countries.

Five years ago: Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry chose former rival John Edwards to be his running mate. A U.S. fighter pilot who'd mistakenly bombed Canadian soldiers in Afghanistan in 2002, killing four, was found guilty in New Orleans of dereliction of duty; Maj. Harry Schmidt was reprimanded and docked a month's pay.

One year ago: The U.S. launched an airstrike at combatants in Afghanistan's Nuristan province; the Afghan government later said 47 civilians died. President George W. Bush arrived in Japan for his eighth and final G8 summit, where he emphasized the urgency of providing aid to Africa. Rafael Nadal won a riveting five-set Wimbledon final, 6-4, 6-4, 6-7 (5), 6-7 (8), 9-7, denying Roger Federer a sixth straight title in a match that lasted 4 hours, 48 minutes.

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Posted: 07-Jul-2009, 07:47 AM
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In 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii.

In 1908, the Democratic national convention, which nominated William Jennings Bryan for president, opened in Denver.

In 1919, the first Transcontinental Motor Convoy, in which a U.S. Army convoy of motorized vehicles crossed the United States, departed Washington, D.C. (The trip ended in San Francisco on Sept. 6, 1919.)

In 1930, construction began on Boulder Dam (later Hoover Dam).

In 1948, six female reservists became the first women to be sworn into the regular U.S. Navy.

In 1969, Canada's House of Commons gave final approval to the Official Languages Act, making French equal to English throughout the national government.

In 1981, President Ronald Reagan announced he was nominating Arizona Judge Sandra Day O'Connor to become the first female justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.

In 1983, 11-year-old Samantha Smith of Manchester, Maine, left for a visit to the Soviet Union at the personal invitation of Soviet leader Yuri V. Andropov.

In 2005, suicide terrorist bombings in three Underground stations and a double-decker bus killed 52 victims and four bombers in the worst attack on London since World War II.

Ten years ago: In the first class-action lawsuit by smokers to go to trial, a jury in Miami held cigarette makers liable for making a defective product that caused emphysema, lung cancer and other illnesses. (The jury later ordered the tobacco industry to pay $145 billion in punitive damages, but the Florida Supreme Court in 2006 voided the award, saying each smoker's case had to be decided individually.) President Bill Clinton became the first chief executive since Franklin D. Roosevelt to visit an Indian reservation as he toured the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota.

Five years ago: Former Enron chairman Kenneth Lay was indicted on criminal charges related to the energy company's collapse. (Lay was later convicted of fraud and conspiracy, but died in July 2006 before he could be sentenced.) Jeff Smith, public television's popular ``Frugal Gourmet'' until a sex scandal ruined his career, died at age 65.

One year ago: A suicide bomber struck the Indian Embassy in Kabul, killing at least 60 people. President George W. Bush met Russian President Dmitry Medvedev for the first time at the G8 summit in Hokkaido, Japan. Actress Nicole Kidman gave birth to a girl; she and her husband, country star Keith Urban, named their daughter Sunday Rose Kidman Urban.

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Posted: 08-Jul-2009, 04:12 AM
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On July 8, 1919, President Woodrow Wilson received a tumultuous welcome in New York City after his return from the Versailles Peace Conference in France; Wilson then headed back to Washington, arriving around midnight.

On this date:

In 1663, King Charles II of England granted a Royal Charter to Rhode Island.

In 1776, Col. John Nixon gave the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence, in Philadelphia.

In 1853, an expedition led by Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in Yedo Bay, Japan, on a mission to seek diplomatic and trade relations with the Japanese.

In 1889, The Wall Street Journal was first published.

In 1907, Florenz Ziegfeld staged his first ``Follies,'' on the roof of the New York Theater.

In 1947, demolition work began in New York City to make way for the new permanent headquarters of the United Nations.

In 1950, President Harry S. Truman named Gen. Douglas MacArthur commander in chief of U.N. forces in Korea.

In 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower began a visit to Canada, where he conferred with Prime Minister John Diefenbaker and addressed the Canadian Parliament.

In 1989, Carlos Saul Menem was inaugurated as president of Argentina in the country's first transfer of power from one democratically elected civilian leader to another in six decades.

In 1994, Kim Il Sung, North Korea's communist leader since 1948, died at age 82.

Ten years ago: An Air Force cargo jet took off from McChord Air Force Base in Washington on a dangerous mission to Antarctica to drop medicine for Dr. Jerri Nielsen, a physician at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Research Center who had discovered a lump in her breast. (The mission was successful; Nielsen was evacuated in October 1999.) Astronaut Charles ``Pete'' Conrad Jr., the third man to walk on the moon, died after a motorcycle accident near Ojai, Calif.; he was 69.

Five years ago: Adelphia Communications Corp. founder John Rigas and his son Timothy were convicted in New York of looting the cable company and deceiving investors. (John Rigas was sentenced to 12 years in prison; Timothy Rigas, 17.) A Swedish appeals court threw out a life prison sentence for the convicted killer of Foreign Minister Anna Lindh, ruling that Mijailo Mijailovic should receive treatment for his ``significant psychiatric problems.''

One year ago: A bipartisan group chaired by former secretaries of state James Baker III and Warren Christopher released a study saying the next time the president goes to war, Congress should be consulted and vote on whether it agrees. A well-organized assault by gunmen on horseback on a U.N.-African Union patrol in Darfur left seven peacekeepers dead and 22 wounded.

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Posted: 10-Jul-2009, 05:07 AM
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Five hundred years ago, on July 10, 1509, French theologian John Calvin, a key figure of the Protestant Reformation, was born Jean Cauvin in Noyon, Picardy, France.

On this date:

In 1890, Wyoming became the 44th state.

In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson personally delivered the Treaty of Versailles to the Senate, and urged its ratification. (However, the Senate rejected it.)

In 1929, American paper currency was reduced in size as the government began issuing bills that were approximately 25 percent smaller.

In 1940, during World War II, the Battle of Britain began as Nazi forces began attacking southern England by air. (The Royal Air Force was ultimately victorious.)

In 1951, armistice talks aimed at ending the Korean War began at Kaesong.

In 1962, the Telstar 1 communications satellite was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla.

In 1973, the Bahamas became fully independent after three centuries of British colonial rule.

In 1979, conductor Arthur Fiedler, who had led the Boston Pops orchestra for a half-century, died in Brookline, Mass., at age 84.

In 1989, Mel Blanc, the ``man of a thousand voices,'' including such cartoon characters as Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck and Porky Pig, died in Los Angeles at age 81.

In 1991, Boris N. Yeltsin took the oath of office as the first elected president of the Russian republic.

Ten years ago: The United States women's soccer team won the World Cup, beating China 5-4 on penalty kicks after 120 minutes of scoreless play at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, Calif.

Five years ago: President George W. Bush said in his weekly radio address that legalizing gay marriage would redefine the most fundamental institution of civilization, and that a constitutional amendment was needed to protect traditional marriage.

One year ago: President George W. Bush signed a bill overhauling rules about government eavesdropping and granting immunity to telecommunications companies that helped the U.S. spy on Americans in suspected terrorism cases. The Senate handily confirmed Gen. David Petraeus as the top commander in the Middle East. Former White House adviser Karl Rove defied a congressional subpoena, refusing to testify about allegations of political pressure at the Justice Department.

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On July 11, 1859, Big Ben, the great bell inside the famous London clock tower, chimed for the first time. (The clock itself had been keeping time since May 31.)

On this date:

In 1767, John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States, was born in Braintree, Mass.

In 1798, the U.S. Marine Corps was formally re-established by a congressional act that also created the U.S. Marine Band.

In 1804, Vice President Aaron Burr mortally wounded former Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton during a pistol duel in Weehawken, N.J.

In 1864, Confederate forces led by Gen. Jubal Early began an abortive invasion of Washington, turning back the next day.

In 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first incumbent chief executive to travel through the Panama Canal.

In 1952, the Republican national convention, meeting in Chicago, nominated Dwight D. Eisenhower for president and Richard M. Nixon for vice president.

In 1955, the U.S. Air Force Academy swore in its first class of cadets at its temporary quarters, Lowry Air Force Base in Colorado.

In 1978, 216 people were immediately killed when a tanker truck overfilled with propylene gas exploded on a coastal highway south of Tarragona, Spain.

In 1979, the abandoned U.S. space station Skylab made a spectacular return to Earth, burning up in the atmosphere and showering debris over the Indian Ocean and Australia.

In 1989, actor and director Laurence Olivier died in Steyning, West Sussex, England, at age 82.

Ten years ago: A U.S. Air Force cargo jet, braving Antarctic winter, swept down over the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Research Center to drop off emergency medical supplies for Dr. Jerri Nielsen, a physician at the center who had discovered a lump in her breast.

Five years ago: Japan's largest opposition party experienced strong gains in upper house elections, while Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi and his Liberal Democratic Party-led ruling bloc held on to a majority. The International AIDS Conference opened in Bangkok, with U.N. chief Kofi Annan challenging world leaders to do more to combat the raging global epidemic. Joe Gold, the founder of the original Gold's Gym in 1965, died in Los Angeles at age 82.

One year ago: Oil prices reached a record high of $147.27 a barrel. IndyMac Bank's assets were seized by federal regulators. A North Korean soldier fatally shot a South Korean tourist at a northern mountain resort, further straining relations between the two Koreas. Dr. Michael E. DeBakey, the cardiovascular surgeon who pioneered such procedures as bypass surgery, died in Houston at 99.

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On July 12, 1984, Democratic presidential candidate Walter F. Mondale announced he'd chosen U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York to be his running-mate; Ferraro was the first woman to run for vice president on a major-party ticket.

In 1543, England's King Henry VIII married his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr.

In 1690, forces led by William of Orange defeated the army of James II at the Battle of the Boyne in Ireland.

In 1812, United States forces led by Gen. William Hull entered Canada during the War of 1812 against Britain. (However, Hull retreated shortly thereafter to Detroit.)

In 1862, Congress authorized the Medal of Honor.

In 1908, comedian Milton Berle was born Mendel Berlinger in New York City.

In 1909, the House of Representatives joined the Senate in passing the 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, allowing for a federal income tax, and submitted it to the states. (It was declared ratified in February 1913.)

In 1948, the Democratic national convention, which nominated President Harry S. Truman for a second term of office, opened in Philadelphia.

In 1977, President Jimmy Carter defended Supreme Court limits on government payments for poor women's abortions, saying, ``There are many things in life that are not fair.''

In 1988, Democratic presidential candidate Michael S. Dukakis tapped Sen. Lloyd Bentsen of Texas as his running-mate.

In 1993, some 200 people were killed when a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck northern Japan and triggered a tsunami.

Ten years ago: President Bill Clinton and Republican congressional leaders held their first face-to-face budget meeting of the year; the talk was described afterward as positive.

Five years ago: President George W. Bush defended the Iraq war during a visit to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, saying the invasion had made America safer. Wall Street brokerage Morgan Stanley settled a sex discrimination suit brought by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, agreeing to pay $54 million.

One year ago: Former White House press secretary Tony Snow died in Washington at age 53. Former All-Star outfielder and longtime Yankees broadcaster Bobby Murcer died in Oklahoma City at age 62. Angelina Jolie gave birth to twins Knox and Vivienne, making a family of eight with Brad Pitt.

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In 1787, Congress enacted an ordinance governing the Northwest Territory.

In 1863, deadly rioting against the Civil War military draft erupted in New York City. (The insurrection was put down three days later.)

In 1878, the Treaty of Berlin amended the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78.

In 1886, Father Edward Joseph Flanagan, the founder of Boys Town, was born in County Roscommon, Ireland.

In 1960, John F. Kennedy won the Democratic presidential nomination at his party's convention in Los Angeles.

In 1972, George McGovern claimed the Democratic presidential nomination at the party's convention in Miami Beach, Fla.

In 1977, a blackout lasting 25 hours hit the New York City area.

In 1978, Lee Iacocca was fired as president of Ford Motor Co. by chairman Henry Ford II.

In 1979, four Palestinian guerrillas stormed the Egyptian Embassy in Ankara, Turkey, killing two guards and taking some 20 hostages. (The guerrillas surrendered 45 hours later.)

In 1985, ``Live Aid,'' an international rock concert in London, Philadelphia, Moscow and Sydney, took place to raise money for Africa's starving people.

Ten years ago: Angel Maturino Resendiz, suspected of being the ``Railroad Killer,'' surrendered in El Paso, Texas. (Resendiz was executed in 2006.) In Tehran, police fired tear gas to disperse 10,000 demonstrators on the sixth day of protests against Iranian hard-liners. The American League won the All-Star Game for the third straight time, defeating the National League 4-1 at Boston's Fenway Park. Stanley Kubrick's final film, ``Eyes Wide Shut'' starring Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman, had its premiere in Los Angeles. (The movie opened in wide release three days later.)

Five years ago: A confidant of Osama bin Laden's (Khaled bin Ouda bin Mohammed al-Harbi) surrendered to Saudi diplomats in Iran and was flown to Saudi Arabia. The American League cruised past the National League 9-4 in the All-Star game at Minute Maid Park in Houston.

One year ago: An assault by militants on a remote U.S. base in Afghanistan close to the Pakistan border killed nine American soldiers and wounded 15. Anheuser-Busch agreed to a takeover by giant Belgian brewer InBev SA. Talk show host Les Crane died in Greenbrae, Calif., at age 74

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On July 15, 1971, President Richard Nixon startled the country by announcing he would visit the People's Republic of China.

In 1606, Dutch painter Rembrandt was born in Leiden, Netherlands.

In 1870, Georgia became the last Confederate state readmitted to the Union. Manitoba entered confederation as the fifth Canadian province.

In 1916, Boeing Co., originally known as Pacific Aero Products Co., was founded in Seattle.

In 1918, the Second Battle of the Marne, resulting in an Allied victory, began during World War I.

In 1948, President Harry S. Truman was nominated for another term of office by the Democratic national convention in Philadelphia.

In 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered U.S. Marines to Lebanon, at the request of that country's president, Camille Chamoun, in the face of a perceived threat by Muslim rebels. (The Americans withdrew in October 1958.)

In 1964, Sen. Barry M. Goldwater of Arizona was nominated for president by the Republican national convention in San Francisco.

In 1976, a 36-hour kidnap ordeal began for 26 schoolchildren and their bus driver as they were abducted near Chowchilla, Calif., by three gunmen and imprisoned in an underground cell. (The captives escaped unharmed.)

In 1979, President Jimmy Carter delivered his ``malaise'' speech in which he lamented what he called a ``crisis of confidence'' in America.

In 1997, fashion designer Gianni Versace was shot dead outside his Miami home; suspected gunman Andrew Phillip Cunanan was found dead eight days later.

Ten years ago: The government acknowledged for the first time that thousands of workers were made sick while making nuclear weapons and announced a plan to compensate many of them. China declared that it had invented its own neutron bomb. The Seattle Mariners played their first game in their new home, Safeco Field, losing to the San Diego Padres 3-2.

Five years ago: President George W. Bush signed into law a measure imposing mandatory prison terms for criminals who use identity theft in committing terrorist acts and other offenses. The Senate approved a plan to pay tobacco farmers $12 billion to give up federal quotas propping up their prices. Retired Air Force Gen. Charles W. Sweeney, who'd piloted the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on Nagasaki in the final days of World War II, died in Boston at age 84.

One year ago: President George W. Bush said the nation's troubled financial system was ``basically sound,'' and he urged lawmakers to quickly enact legislation to prop up mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. A judge in Los Angeles sentenced Helen Golay, 77, and Olga Rutterschmidt, 75, to two consecutive life terms each for murdering two indigent men to collect insurance policies taken out on their lives. In an All-Star game that began at dusk and ended at 1:37 a.m. the next morning, the American League defeated the National League 4-3 in 15 innings at Yankee stadium.

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On July 16, 1969, Apollo 11, carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin ``Buzz'' Aldrin Jr. and Michael Collins, blasted off from Cape Kennedy, Fla., on the first manned mission to the surface of the moon.

In 1790, a site along the Potomac River was designated the permanent seat of the U.S. government; the area became Washington.

In 1862, David G. Farragut became the first rear admiral in the United States Navy.

In 1909, the Audi auto company was founded in Zwickau, Germany, by August Horch under the name Horch Automobil-Werke. (A legal dispute resulted in Horch renaming the company Audiwerke the following year.)

In 1945, the United States exploded its first experimental atomic bomb, in the desert of Alamogordo, N.M.

In 1957, Marine Maj. John Glenn set a transcontinental speed record by flying a jet from California to New York in three hours, 23 minutes and eight seconds.

In 1964, as he accepted the Republican presidential nomination in San Francisco, Barry M. Goldwater said ``extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice'' and that ``moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue.''

In 1973, during the Senate Watergate hearings, former White House aide Alexander P. Butterfield publicly revealed the existence of President Richard Nixon's secret taping system.

In 1979, Saddam Hussein became president of Iraq.

In 1989, conductor Herbert von Karajan died near Salzburg, Austria, at age 81.

In 1994, the first of 21 pieces of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 smashed into Jupiter, to the joy of astronomers awaiting the celestial fireworks.

Ten years ago: John F. Kennedy Jr., his wife, Carolyn, and her sister, Lauren Bessette, died when their single-engine plane, piloted by Kennedy, plunged into the Atlantic Ocean near Martha's Vineyard, Mass.

Five years ago: Martha Stewart was sentenced to five months in prison and five months of home confinement by a federal judge in New York for lying about a stock sale. Some 90 children were killed in a school fire in southern India. Former Georgia Gov. George Busbee died in Savannah at age 76.

One year ago: Republican John McCain addressed the annual convention of the NAACP, telling the civil rights group in Cincinnati he would expand education opportunities, partly through vouchers for low-income children to attend private school. Israel freed notorious Lebanese militant Samir Kantar and four others after Hezbollah guerrillas handed over the bodies of two Israeli soldiers. Band singer Jo Stafford died in Century City, Calif., at age 90.

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