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> Clan Stewart, a wee history
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Svanhildur
Posted: 28-Oct-2008, 05:36 AM
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Origins of the name "Stewart"
The name "Stewart" was taken from the word "steward" - the protector and caretaker of an estate. In this case, the estate was the Kingdom of Scotland. The official in charge of the Scots household and treasury was given the title Steward, which became the name Stewart possibly as far back as the 12th century.

When one branch of the Stewart migrated to live in France, the spelling "Stuart" came about as there is no "w" in the French alphabet. Adopted there by Mary Queen of Scots during her exile, it became fashionable when she returned to Scotland. The variation "Steuart" was a compromise between the two spellings.

Beginnings
The Stewart family records its traditional descent from Banquo, Thane of Lochaber, a character in William Shakespeare’s MacBeth. The true origin is even more interesting.

Their first traceable ancestor was Alan, a Breton noble and hereditary Steward of Dol in the Brittany living about 1045, and appears to have had connections with the Counts of Dol and Dinan, who were a branch of the ancient ruling Dynasty of Brittany. Alan's second son, Flaald fitz Alan, became the hereditary Steward of Dol in the Brittany when his elder brother perished on the First Crusade in 1097. Fitz is the Norman-French word for "son" (French fils).

After the Norman conquest and during the time of Flaald's son, Alan fitz Flaald, the family moved to England and acquired lands there. Alan fitz Flaald became Sheriff of Shropshire.

About 1124, at the start of the reign of King David I, the family migrated to Scotland led by Walter FitzAlan.

As Brittany was colonised from Britain, it seems probable that the Stewart family's original ancestors were Ancient Britons of high rank. So it is especially interesting that the first monarchs of United Great Britain should have been the chiefs of the Stewart Clan.

The family were granted large estates in East Lothian and Renfrewshire. During the time of King Malcolm IV the office of High Steward of Scotland was made hereditary to the FitzAlan family, sometime after 1153.

During the struggle for Scottish independence (around 1315), Sir William Wallace and Robert the Bruce was supported by 5th High Steward, James FitzAlan. Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, a younger brother of James, assisted Edward Bruce to become High King of Ireland 1316.

First Stewart King
The Royal House of Stewart commences with the marriage of William FitzAlan, 6th High Steward, and Princess Marjory Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce. William and Marjory's son, Robert II, was heir-apparent as King Robert I had no sons.

Robert Stewart was born in 1317 and lived until 19th April 1390 when he was killed by a fatal blow from a horse kicking him in the head. In 1347, Robert married Elizabeth Mure, and later Euphemia of Ross after Elizabeth's death. Robert became King of Scotland in 1371 after the death of King David II.

James IV (reign 1473-1513) is credited with many advancements and the establishment of national bodies for the Kingdom of Scotland, including the first printing press (in 1507), the Aberdeen University with the College of Surgeons, and a permanent Court of Sessions with professional judges.

In 1502 the Kingdoms of Scotland and England (the Houses of Stewart and Tudor) became joined by blood when James IV married the 13-year-old daughter of Henry VII, Margaret Tudor. James and his son Alexander was killed during the battle of Flodden Edge against the army of Henry VII - much of the aristocracy and army of Scotland died, including nine earls and 13 barons.

On the death of James V, the direct male line of the Royal Stewart failed. But the succession of the house was continued through Mary Queen of Scots' marriage with Henry, Lord Darnley, descended from the second son of Sir Alan Stewart of Bonkyl, Sir Alan. James VI was thus both heir male and heir of the line of the House of Stewart, but it was as heir of the line that he represented the House of Stewart descending through Princess Marjory Bruce and the long line of Celtic and Pictish kings.

James VI (1566 - 1625) came to the Throne of Scotland at the age of one following the abdication of Queen Mary in 1567. The Stewart Clan held the regency for some time through the Earl of Moray, including James Stewart (the illegitimate son of James V) and the Earl of Lennox, Matthew Stewart, both of whom were murdered. Among the mixture Protestant and Catholics in Scotland, James was swayed towards Catholicism partly from the influence of his mother (Mary). To prevent his conversion, James was imprisoned for 2 years by an ultra Protestant faction. Upon his release, James set about excluding and exiling many ultra Protestants, including Francis Stewart, on the charge of witchcraft against the king and attacks on royal residences.

Yet James was well aware of the importance of family relationships in establishing peace and order in his kingdom. One of his first acts an beginning his rule was to settle the differences between his nobles in Edinburgh, and then lead them in a public procession up the High Street from his palace.

More significant, a few months later he had all landowners renew the "general band' of earlier reigns, making them answerable for the good conduct of the followers, with the important addition that chiefs and chieftains became responsible also for their clansmen, whether or not they were their feudal vassals.
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Clan Stewart has a long history and I will post more on it's origins.

Svan

               
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Svanhildur
Posted: 12-Nov-2008, 07:52 AM
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The turning point in clan Stewart was as mentionned below. It was not a good time in it's history.Their dynasty took a plundge for the worst as the Royal Stewarts lost their monarchs either by murder or execution or exile and those that were left to govern were only minority.All of this over a very short period of time in history.
Amazing how one so powerful can go down so fast in those uncertains days.

Good reading.

United Scotland and England
When Queen Elizabeth I of England died, James became King of England and Scotland. To help join the two countries as the United Kingdom, James declared Scotland a Protestant country and that the Scots Kirk should follow the English model, with some Catholic practices. In the confused politics of the time, the Scots Parliament agreed to the union, the English parliament rejected it, and the Kirk practically ignored the edicts.

With the removal of the Court to London, the rule of the Stewart monarchs became more remote, but the succession continued through Charles I and II, James VII, and Queen Mary and Queen Anne.

Charles followed James VI as King of Scotland and England in 1625, being the eldest son of James and Anne of Denmark.

Two generations later, Scotland deteriorated quickly as James VII was forced to flee with his family for France in 1688 following an Act of Parliament which claimed he had abandoned the throne in favour of ruling England and of being a Catholic. James' attempt to regain the throne through his Jacobite Revolution were supported by the northern highland clans (being mostly Catholic) who helped him defeat the larger army of William of Orange who had claimed the crown. However, the forces of James could not take all of Scotland, and south was held by William and his ancestors. Scotland became part of the United Kingdom in 1707, with control almost entirely in English hands.

When Queen Anne died in 1714, James VIII returned to Scotland from France with the aid of the Earl of Mar, George I. His time in Scotland was only 6 years before he retreated again to France.

The reign of Bonnie Prince Charlie (Charles Edward Stewart) started well in 1745 with his landing in Scotland with a force built from the remainder of his father's (James VIII) army, and troops from Spain and France. A year later he advanced upon Edinburgh to defeat the army of the English General Cope. Despite getting little support from Edinburgh's people, Charles advanced through England to take London. Through the bad advice of his some of his leaders, the army retreated north again, pursued by English forces. Charles' forces were defeated time and again, and eventually after the Battle of Culloden he fed into the highlands and then to France.

From that time on, the middle 18th Century, the English government began to take apart the Scottish identity, again outlawing, 500 years after Robert the Bruce, Scots customs and arms and destroying the clan system.

The Royal Stewarts were an unlucky dynasty: of the fourteen crowned monarchs between 1371 and 1714, four were murdered or executed, two died in battle, one in exile, while seven in succession came to the throne as minors. Between 1406 and 1587 there were nearly 100 years of rule by regents.

To the more powerful among their subjects, these Stewarts were at first merely a noble house raised to kingship by a "lucky" marriage. James I had to overthrow a powerful group of kinsmen, the House of Albany. James II destroyed the power of the Douglases. James III was deep in trouble with sections of his nobility. James IV tried to keep power by exploiting rivalries and enmities. And by sweeping forfeitures James V regained for the crown what the warring nobles had filched from it. But these early Stewarts were monarchs who knew, lived and moved amongst their own people.

Svan
               
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Svanhildur
Posted: 12-Jan-2009, 07:09 PM
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Another chapter about the Royal Stewart.
Later we'll see and talk of one very popular and at the same time "infamous" Royal Stewart..bonnie Prince Charlie.

Last Royal Stewart
In 1807 the Cardinal Duke of York, Prince Henry, (brother of Prince Charles Edward) died, ending the male line of the Royal Stewarts. George III, King of England, was bequeathed the Scottish Coronation Ring, chivalric orders, and other royal and personal heirlooms by Prince Henry. As these orders always report to the King of Scotland, George became heir to the Stewarts' rights to the throne, and was named "Tanist" of the old Royal line.

With her succession to the throne of the United Kingdom, Queen Victoria could claim the right "as Representative of the Family of Bonnie Prince Charlie" and that "no one could be a greater Jacobite than herself".

Though there is no direct male descent of the Stewart family to the current throne of Scotland and England, James VI's daughter Elizabeth was the ancestress of the House of Hanover, and of their successors on the British throne. The heir apparent still bears the ancient title "Prince and Steward of Scotland". So today, Prince Charles is Great Steward of Scotland because he is the female-line descent of Walter FitzAlan, the first Stewart. In the thirteenth century, the 4th Stewart of Scotland (a crusader) married the heiress of the Lord of Bute of the royal House of Isles - another of Prince Charles's dignities is that of Lord of the Isles.




               
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lschillinger 
  Posted: 13-Jan-2009, 10:18 AM
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Svan,

Thanks for all of the great information!!!


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GKing 
Posted: 05-Feb-2009, 11:51 PM
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Hello all . I am gathering information for the J.E.B Stuart birthplace . I would appreciate it greatly if someone could give me some info on Jeb's Scottish and or Scotch irish ancestry . Would his line have belonged to clan Stewart or Stuart etc . thanks greatly .
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Svanhildur
Posted: 18-Mar-2009, 03:04 PM
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GKing,

Here is what I found about J.E.B Stuart ancestry.
This is only a small paragraph but you might want to look this link for more on him and his ancestry.Though this link mostly explains about his life and campaigns it does not however specify anything on who's lineage of the Scottish Stewart he could belong to.

The Life and Campaigns of Major-General J.E.B. Stuart
By
H.B. McClellan

Chapter I.--Ancestry, Boyhood And Youth.

JAMES EWELL BROWN STUART was born in Patrick County, Virginia, on the 6th of February, 1833.
His ancestry is traced on his father's side to Archibald Stuart, a native of Londonderry, Ireland, but of Scotch-Presbyterian parentage, who, about the year 1726, was compelled by religious persecution to fly from his native country. He found refuge in western Pennsylvania, where he remained in seclusion for seven years. At the expiration of this period the passage of an act of amnesty rendered it safe for him to disclose his hiding-place, and his wife and children joined him in his new home. About the year 1738 he removed from Pennsylvania to Augusta County, Va., where he acquired large landed estates, which, either during his lifetime or by will, he divided among his four children.


J.E.B.Stuart Ancestry

Hope this help in your research.

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Svanhildur
Posted: 21-Mar-2009, 08:07 PM
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I did a little bit more research on this J.E.B Stuart for you GKing and this is what I found about his birthplace and some of his ancerstors.

THE HISTORY OF THE LAUREL HILL FARM

For untold centuries, this beautiful land along the Ararat River valley was inhabited by the Native American peoples who raised crops, hunted, fished, made their dwellings and raised their families in this unspoiled wilderness. It was only with the appearance of white settlers in the early eighteenth century and beyond that the Native American population was gradually dispossessed of the land. Evidence of their habitation of the land now known as Laurel Hill was uncovered during the archaeological survey of Laurel Hill in the 1990's. These artifacts, dating from hundreds of years past, are now preserved by the Trust.

The consummation of a marriage between William Letcher and Elizabeth Perkins in Pittsylvania County, Virginia in 1778, set in motion a chain of events that would ultimately lead to the birth of J.E.B. Stuart in 1833 at the Stuart home, Laurel Hill. Shortly after their marriage, William and Elizabeth Letcher set forth to establish a new home in the west. During those days, the west was generally thought to mean Kentucky. Why, and under what circumstances they decided to venture along the banks of the Ararat River to make their home, is not known. Given William's later role as a patriot in the cause of the American Revolution, it is a matter of conjecture that he settled on the Ararat River to become involved in that cause.

The new family, along with their slaves, nine in number, named David, Ben, Randolph, Craft, Nann, Look, Abraham, Will and Dick, began the task of home building and subsistence farming. The chosen site for the new home, was on the west bank of the Ararat River directly opposite present day Laurel Hill. The site of the original Letcher home has not, as yet, been uncovered. Some evidence exists that suggests that the present day Mitchell House built ca. 1905 is the site of the original Letcher home. No deed or title to the land in the name of William Letcher has ever been uncovered, however considering the long and difficult journey to Collinsville the then county seat of Henry County, it is possible that had a deed existed it was never recorded.

By the early spring of the year 1780, Elizabeth Letcher gave birth to a daughter on March 21st who was given the name of Bethenia. William's continued involvement in the cause of the American Revolution as evidenced by his membership in the local militia, placed him in jeopardy given the great number of Tories that resided in the area. Threats to his life and property were more and more common, and culminated in his murder on August 2nd of that same year. The perpetrator of this foul deed was a local Tory by the name of "Nichols" who was later apprehended and executed. Elizabeth and baby Bethenia returned to Pittsylvania County where Elizabeth later married George Hairston, then reputed to be the wealthiest man in Virginia. They made their home at the Beavercreek Plantation in Henry County which remains in existence, and contains the graves of George and Elizabeth Hairston.

In either late 1799 or early 1800, Bethenia Letcher married David Pannill and became the mother of two children, a son William and a daughter Elizabeth.
The children were named in honor of their maternal grandparents. The history of the fifteen hundred acre plantation that became the Stuart home is complex, in some instances vague and uncertain. Nevertheless, William and Elizabeth Pannill by reason of many different land transactions became the owners of a fifteen hundred acre tract of land which, ultimately became the property of Archibald Stuart.
In a land swap deal, Elizabeth transferred to her brother William the ownership of certain properties she had inherited, while he in turn, transferred ownership of his interest in the fifteen hundred acre tract to Elizabeth.

In the year of 1817, at the age of fifteen or sixteen, Elizabeth Pannill married Archibald Stuart. At the age of twenty-two, Archibald was just entering a career in law and politics. In the early years of the marriage, Archibald practiced law in Campbell County, Virginia where he was elected to the state legislature for the first time. In the next four years, the Stuarts had four children, three daughters and a son, none of whom were born at Laurel Hill.


Copyright 2008
J.E.B. Stuart Birthplace Preservation Trust Inc.
All Rights Reserved



It still doesn't give any informations as to which clan his name could be associated with but maybe with further research in libraries or municipal archives you could find something.

You might also want to read the rest on this site.

J.E.B. Stuart history

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jbarron 
Posted: 17-Sep-2009, 03:03 PM
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My family in Scotland were Stewarts and lived in the Kilmaurs Parish area in the mid-1800's according to the censuses. I've not been able to trace any further back however and am curious if there is a good source for Scottish records (other than Ancestry.com, because I've exhausted everything they have).

Thank you.
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