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> Timeline, a historical overview
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barddas 
Posted: 07-Oct-2003, 10:18 AM
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ZodiacWillow

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I branched this off of the HAllowe'en topic due to the historical topics coming into it in the general sence...

This is a general timeline of the celts/druids

Up to-
4000 BCE Mesolithic Period: Hunters and gatherers.

4000 BCE Approximate date of first documented Proto-Indo European culture ,which is
believed Druidic, near the Black Sea circa.

4000- Neolithic Period: Construction of Callanish,
1800 BCE and other megalithic monuments. First farmers

3500 BCE Construction of Newgrange which is the largest megolithic monument in Europe.

1800- The Bronze Age.
1600 BCE

1000 BCE Evidence of a Proto-Celtic Unetice or Urnfield culture in Slovakia circa. The
Iron Age.

900- Hallstat Period. (Rise of the Celts)
500 BCE

800 BCE Proto-Celtic Tribes formed to create the Celtic culture circa.

500- La Tene Period. (Heroic age of the Celts,
15 BCE time of mythology)

450 BCE Celts expanded into Spain. Anglo-Saxon invasion.

400 BCE The Celts had nomadically migrated into northern Italy.

390 BCE Celts invaded Rome

279 BCE Celts invaded Greece

270 BCE Celts moved in to Galatia (Central Turkey).

200 BCE The Celts occupied the British Isles, Brittany, modern France, Netherlands,
Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland.

82 BCE Rome defeats Celts in Italy.

55 BCE Julius Ceasar of Rome invaded the Celtic Britian.

52 BCE Julius Ceasar defeats Celts in Gaul.

43-409 CE Romano-British Era: Rome controls most of Britian and Wales.

61 CE Rome attacks Anglesey and destroys Druid Monestaries.

Remaining Druids escape into mountains of Wales, Scotland and Ireland

The last pagan sacrifice in Scotland was in the late 1700's early 1800's.
The specific date is in the Celts forum, in the celtic sacrifice topic.

For comparison, here is a *brief* timeline of the life of Jesus of Nazereth.

Timeline
6-4 BC ? Birth of Jesus Christ
5-4 BC ? Escape to Egypt. Slaughter of children.
4 BC    ? Herod the Great dies (spring).
7-8 AD ? Jesus visits Jerusalem as a child.
12 AD ? Augustus makes Tiberius co-regent.
14 AD ? Tiberius becomes Caesar (August 19th).
25 AD ? Pilate & Caiaphas appointed to office.
29 AD ? Ministry of John the Baptist begins.
29 AD ? Christ's ministry begins.
31 AD ? Tiberius executes Sejanus (Oct 18th).
33 AD ? Jesus dies (Friday, April 3rd, 3:00pm).
36 AD ? Pilate dethroned. Caiaphas deposed.
37 AD ? Tiberius Caesar dies.


This post has been edited by barddas on 07-Oct-2003, 10:22 AM


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barddas 
Posted: 07-Oct-2003, 10:21 AM
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BC and AD are no longer used in the Archeology/Anthropology

It is now BCE Before Common Era
and CE Common Era
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RavenWing 
Posted: 07-Oct-2003, 10:59 AM
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Thank you Jason. thumbs_up.gif


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barddas 
Posted: 07-Oct-2003, 11:10 AM
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The Romans in England
Arrival of Christianity 313 AD

Constantine I, the Roman Emperor, was converted to Christianity early in the 4th century AD and what had been a minor religion began to spread across the Roman Empire. Scotland had welcomed Christianity as early as 205 but England had to wait another century. Famously, Albanus had been tortured and put to death for offering protection and shelter to a Christian in 208. (The modern-day town of St Albans takes its name from the local event.) But with the conversion of the Emperor paganism was to be outlawed. From 391 people still practising Paganism faced death if caught by authorities, and across England Pagan temples and idols were being destroyed.




Druids filled the roles of judge, doctor, diviner, mage, mystic, and clerical scholar. In other words they filled the religious roles in their culture.

To become a Druid, students assembled in large groups for instruction and training, for a period of up to twenty years. The mythologies describe Druids who were capable of many magical powers such as divination and prophesy, control of the weather, healing and levitation. It was also believed that they were shapechangers and could take on the forms of animals. The Druids saw the Oak tree as special and thought that it gave special powers. They also worshipped the wren - telling the future by interpreting its flight. Unfortunately for the wren they believed that by eating them they could share in their powers.

Druidism must be understood in the context of the culture that created it. Only the Celtic people called their religious professionals Druids. Other cultures had other names for their clergy, and expected different duties from them. Druids were not an ethnic or cultural group in themselves, but part of a larger society in which they participated. In the pre-christian era of Celtic culture, the Druids were members of a professional class.

The Celts affected many European cultures. However they have a particular importance for the Irish as they are predominantly the people that the Irish have descended from. But who were they?

The Celts originated c. 1500 BC during the Bronze Age. They were the first Indo-European peoples to spread throughout Europe. They probably originated in present-day France, S Germany. By 550 BC Celtic culture is endemic throughout Britain, France, Western Spain, South Germany, North Italy and stretching East to the Black Sea. There is even a group in Central Turkey (the Galatians, who St. Paul writes to in the New Testament). There is trade between the Celts and the Etruscans. In 400 BC the Celts cross the Alps and invade Italy and ten years later sack Rome. They demand a large bounty of gold. In 335 Celts meet Alexander the Great, the same year as he destroys Thebes. He is impressed by them as warriors. However it is around now that the Celts begin to decline as a force and in 230 BC the Galatians are defeated by the Greeks. In 225 they are defeated by the Romans at the battle of Telamon in Italy. In 125 Rome conquers Southern Gaul. From this point on the Celts were never to be a real force in Europe again. Celtic tradition survived most and for longest in Ireland and Britain. They were famous for their burial sites and hill forts, and their bronze and iron art and jewellery. Their modern descendents are found chiefly in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.

The language spoken by the Celts was Celtic. There were two main branches: Goidelic comprises the Gaelic spoken in Ireland, which spread to the Isle of Man and Scotland; Brythonic (also called Brittonic or British) comprises Welsh, Cornish, and Breton. The are some dialects spoken on the continent, known as Continental Celtic (Gaulish in France, Celtiberian in Spain and Insular Celtic in Brittany).

Saint Patrick (389?-461?)
Saint Patrick was known as the Apostle of Ireland. He was born in South-West Britain in about 389AD. At 16 years of age he was carried off by Irish pirates - whose leader was Niall of the Nine Hostages - and passed his captivity as a herdsman. He worked on Slemish Mountain, Co. Antrim. He escaped after six years to the northern coast of Gaul, but returned to Ireland after he was ordained a priest. Some time after 431 Patrick was appointed successor to Saint Palladius, first bishop of Ireland. His reported use of the shamrock as an illustration of the Trinity led to its being regarded as the Irish national symbol. His traditional feast day is March 17.


For five hundred years after Patrick's arrival Ireland's experience of the church was almost entirely monastic. These monasteries had a profound effect on Irish society usually the largest urban settlements of the time grew up around them. The monks themselves lived in beehive shaped huts and often tookover the duties of the Druids who they subtley, and sometimes not so subtley, replaced. Most medieval monasteries followed the rules of an Italian monk named St. Benedict(450-543 AD), though monasticism truly began with St. Anthony. He founded a monastery in Egypt in 305 AD. However he left little in the way of formal structure for monks to follow and so it is not until Benedict that monasteries begin to accept standard rules. Benedict laid great stress on the monks' duty to be obedient to the abbot or head of the monastery. His rules were strict but he made sure his monks ate healthy food and got enough sleep. Monks and monasteries played an important part in society in the middle ages. The monks provided education, hospital care and shelter for travellers. They also introduced great improvements in farming. St. Benedict's rules were followed in most medieval monasteries but some monks believed that a stricter form of monastic rule was needed. Two very strick forms of orders were founded in the middle ages - the Carthusians and the Cistercians. Carthusian monks lived in single cells. they ate alone and only met the rest of the monks at mass or on special religious occasions. The Cistercian order was founded in 1098, by St. Robert of Molesums. The order was named after its first monastery in a place called Citeaux in eastern France. After St. Bernard joined them in 1112, the order spread rapidly throughout Europe. These monks laid great stress on prayer, fasting, silence and manual labour.

It is worth noting that the majority of monasteries set up in Ireland followed a more austere approach to monasticism. The majority of monastery ruins seen around Ireland belong to the 12th and 13th Centuries and were generally Cistercian.


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barddas 
Posted: 07-Oct-2003, 11:52 AM
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ZodiacWillow

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I found this interesting. There is a link to somewhere on the page.... BBC






Christians and Pagans together



Silver 'St Peter' penny from York. The final 'I' of 'PETRI' takes the form of Thor's hammer ©
The raids on the Frankish kingdoms and the British Isles brought increased contact with Christianity. Although Vikings often seem to have maintained their beliefs throughout the periods of their raiding, there was considerable pressure to convert to Christianity if they wished to have more peaceful relations with the Christians. This could happen on a political level, as in the Treaty of Wedmore in 878. The treaty bound the Viking leader Guthrum to accept Christianity, with Alfred of Wessex as his godfather, and Alfred in turn recognised Guthrum as the ruler of East Anglia.


'...Christians were not really supposed to trade with pagans...'

Another more or less formal convention applied to trade, since Christians were not really supposed to trade with pagans. Although a full conversion does not seem to have been demanded of all Scandinavian traders, the custom of 'primsigning' (first-signing) was introduced. This was a halfway step, falling short of baptism, but indicating some willingness to accept Christianity, and this was often deemed to be enough to allow trading.

Further pressure came as Viking raiders settled down alongside Christian neighbours. Although scholars disagree on exactly how extensive the Scandinavian settlement was in different parts of the British Isles, few people would now accept that the Vikings completely replaced the native population in any area. In particular, the settlers often took native wives (or at least partners), although some settlers apparently brought their families over from Scandinavia. The children of these mixed marriages would therefore grow up in partially Christian households, and might even be brought up as Christians. Further intermarriage, coupled with the influence of the Church, gradually brought about a complete conversion.

The peaceful co-existence of pagans and Christians is suggested by some of the coinage of Viking York. One coin type carries the name of St Peter, rather than the ruler. This seems very obviously Christian, but on many of the coins, the final 'I' of 'PETRI' takes the form of Thor's hammer, and some of these coins also have a hammer on the reverse. These coins seem to carry a deliberate message that both paganism and Christianity were acceptable.


www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/vikings/religion_04.shtml
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