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> Heelstone Carvings "quartz Hydration"
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Garry Denke 
Posted: 16-Apr-2004, 02:27 PM
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Heelstone Carvings "Quartz Hydration"

The new technique, called "Quartz Hydration", takes advantage of the natural properties of quartz, a mineral found in many rocks. Whenever a rock containing quartz is cut or polished, as in the world famous Lion head, Calf head, Man face, and Eagle wings' Heelstone Carvings at Stonehenge, the quartz at the surface is left exposed. Over time, water diffuses into the quartz, forming a layer. By measuring the layer, how long ago the rock was cut is determined. The technique can be used to date stone carvings that were created between 100 and about 100,000 years ago. A paper outlining the technique is available in the current issue of the Journal of Archaeological Science, dated July 2004.

http://today.uci.edu/news/release_detail.asp?key=1123

REPORT ON THE EXCAVATIONS AT STONEHENGE DURING THE SEASON OF 1923
William Hawley
Antiquaries Journal. J., 5
1925
21-50

STONEHENGE
R.J.C. Atkinson
PENGUIN BOOKS
in association with Hamish Hamilton
1956
ISBN 0140136460
INDEX 221
Carvings, modern, 33-4, 46-7
prehistoric, 43-7, 91-3, 139-40,
178-9, 208-9
Heel Stone, 29-30,68-9, 70, 76,
105, 173, 203

STONEHENGE
in its landscape
Twentieth-century excavations

Rosamund M J Cleal, K E Walker, and R Montague
with major contributions by
Michael J Allen, Alex Bayliss, C Bronk Ramsey, Linda Coleman,
Julie Gardiner, P A Harding, Rupert Housley, Andrew J Lawson,
Gerry McCormac, Jacqueline I McKinley, Andrew Payne,
Robert G Scaife, Dale Serjeantson, and Geoff Wainwright
ENGLISH HERITAGE
1995
ARCHAEOLOGICAL REPORT 10
ISBN 1850746052
INDEX 603, 608
carvings, prehistoric 30-3,
Plate 7.2
Heelstone (Stone 96)
25, 26, 166, 269, 270, 271, 272

PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY . 92
Science and Stonehenge

Edited by
BARRY CUNLIFFE & COLIN RENFREW
Published for THE BRITISH ACADEMY
by OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
1997
ISBN 0197261744
INDEX 351, 355
carvings, prehistoric 5, 29, 35, 150, 338
distribution 150, 163, 190
Heelstone (Stone 96) 15, 16, 28, 155

HENGEWORLD
Mike Pitts
C
CENTURY . LONDON
2000
ISBN 0712679545
INDEX 402, 403
Stonehenge
carvings 8, 26, 265-6, 296-7, 27,
266
Heelstone 8, 96, 135, 139,
145-50, 154, 229, 266, 275, 7,
138, 146, 230

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